Unit 2: The First People Of Wisconsin

by

Dr. Ava L. McCall and Thelma Ristow

 

Definition Of Topic

Stockbridge-Munsee Tribe

Activities

Rationale

Potawatomi Tribe

Introduction To Unit

Unit Goals

Oneida Tribe

Origins Of Wisconsin Native Americans

National Social Studies Thematic Strands

Ojibwa Tribe

Lifestyles Of Wisconsin Native Americans

School District Social Studies Curriculum Objectives

Menominee Tribe

Values And Beliefs Of WI Native Americans

School District Literacy Curriculum Objectives

Ho-Chunk Tribe

First Relationships With Europeans

Multicultural Concepts

Childrens Books

Audiovisual Materials

Background Knowledge

Childrens Periodicals

Resource People

Family Involvement Activities

Professional Books

Field Trips

Overall Assessment Strategies

Professional Curriculum Guides

Electronic Resources

 

 

Definition Of Topic

This unit will focus on the six federally recognized Native American tribes located now in Wisconsin: the Oneida, Anishinabe-Ojibwa, Menominee, Stockbridge-Munsee, Potawatomi, and the Winnebago or Hochungra who now prefer to be called the Ho-Chunk. The unit will include the tribes' origins, the lifestyle, values and beliefs, the first contact with Europeans, the effects of this contact on the tribes.

 

Rationale

Students need to understand the importance of the Oneida, Ojibwa, Menominee, Stockbridge-Munsee, Potawatomi, and Ho-Chunk cultures to the history of Wisconsin because everyone's lives have been affected by the history of the original inhabitants of the state. Unfortunately, the history of native people in Wisconsin has often been omitted or slighted in the curriculum, contributing to the lack of understanding and appreciation for the tribes. Since our society has historically perpetuated racist policies and actions directed against native people, by encouraging students to understand and appreciate the culture and history of Wisconsin tribes, we can help to interrupt this racism and foster social structural equality among native and non native people.

 

Unit Goals

1. Students will develop greater knowledge of and appreciation for the origins, lifestyles, values and beliefs, first contact with Europeans and the effects of this contact for the Oneida, Ojibwa, Menominee, Ho-Chunk, Stockbridge-Munsee, and Potawatomi in Wisconsin.

2. Students will value Wisconsin Native American culture and history.

3. Students will develop critical literacy by analyzing texts for inclusion of diverse groups as well as different perspectives and assumptions.

4. Students will develop literacy skills through reading, writing, speaking, and listening.

5. Students will develop cooperative learning skills by working with others.

6. Students will develop artistic skills by expressing understandings through art.

 

National Social Studies Thematic Strands

            This unit will include the culture thematic strand by focusing on aspects of culture and cultural diversity among six Wisconsin Native American tribes. This strand is significant because it offers opportunities for students to understand and appreciate the richness and complexity of native people's cultures in Wisconsin which have historically been devalued. Through increased understanding and appreciation of the six tribes, we can move toward social structural equality for native people in Wisconsin.

 

            This unit will incorporate the time, continuity, and change thematic strand by illustrating how Wisconsin native people's lives changed over time due to contact with Europeans and European and Native American perspectives on different groups and events. This theme is significant to illustrate the changing nature of culture and the reciprocal aspect of the influence of different cultural groups on each other, such as Native Americans and Europeans in Wisconsin. This theme is also important to depict conflicting interpretations of historical events and cultural groups based on different values, beliefs, experiences, and assumptions. By offering students opportunities to learn more about the complex nature of culture and different interpretations of groups and events, we can encourage deeper and more critical thinking regarding Wisconsin Native Americans.

 

            This unit will address the people, places, and environment thematic strand by including ways the six Wisconsin tribes adapted to and valued their physical environment. This strand is especially important to demonstrate how the tribes lived successfully as well as respected the physical world they lived in prior to contact with Europeans. By encouraging students to understand this history, we can encourage them to value Native American cultures with environmentally sensitive lifestyles and consider developing more environmentally sensitive lifestyles themselves.

 

            This unit will focus on the individuals, groups, and institutions thematic strand by incorporating the significance of group identity among the six Wisconsin tribes. This theme is significant because group identity was crucial to the survival of the tribes and an important part of each tribe's values and culture. By offering students opportunities to understand this theme, we encourage them to understand Wisconsin Native American cultures on a deeper level.

 

School District Social Studies Curriculum Objectives

1. 2c Students will use maps and globes to locate origins of Native American tribes according to different theories.

 

2. 1d&j Students will locate major bodies of water and river systems in Wisconsin and explain how they influenced the lifestyles of Wisconsin tribes.

2. 1f Students will describe features of climate, natural vegetation, forests, and prairie lands and their influence on the lifestyle of Wisconsin tribes.

 

3. 1d & 2e Students will list ways in which Native American tribes depended upon and adapted to their environment.

 

5. 2c & i Students will locate areas that can be classified as regions and the animal and plant life indigenous to the regions where Wisconsin tribes lived seasonal lifestyles, such as forested hunting camps, fishing camps, and maple sugar camps.

5. 2j Students will list economic activities such as trading with French fur traders which were most likely to be located in specific regions.

 

14. 1 Students will identify different terms acceptable for Indians or Native Americans.

 

14. 2 Students will identify areas of Wisconsin in which the first Indians lived.

 

14. 3 Students will describe some of the important historical/cultural contributions of the Wisconsin Indian tribes (Menominee, Stockbridge-Munsee, Oneida, Potawatomi, Ho-Chunk, and Ojibwa).

 

14. 4 Students will explain how the Wisconsin Indians' way of life changed after their first encounters with French fur traders.

 

14. 8 & 10 Students will explain the effect of the French and Indian War, Revolutionary War, and the War of 1812 on Wisconsin tribes.

 

School District Literacy Curriculum Objectives

Reading Band E

Reading Strategies

Students will use a dictionary to gain information when reading.

Students will use the index, table of contents, and glossary to gain information when reading expository text.

Students will use a variety of word analysis strategies to decode words.

Students will use a variety of comprehension strategies to gain meaning from more complex text.

 

Reading Responses

Students will improvise in role play.

Students will prepare written responses to show meaning inferred from text.

Students will demonstrate understanding of a piece of literature.

Students will express and support an opinion on the author's purpose.

Students will analyze text to show understanding of character traits and actions.

Students will evaluate the behavior of characters from different cultural perspectives.

Students will paraphrase informational/expository text.

Students will read orally with expression.

 

Interest and Attitudes

Students will choose books of personal interest related to the curriculum unit.

Students will participate in SSR.

Students will independently choose books appropriate to their reading level.

Students will demonstrate effective listening and speaking habits.

 

Writing Band E

Writing Mechanics

Students will construct more complex sentences.

Students will write passages with clear meaning, accuracy of spelling, and appropriate punctuation and grammar.

Students will use a dictionary and/or thesaurus to check and extend vocabulary for writing.

Students will write statements, questions, commands, and exclamations.

Students will consistently use legible handwriting.

Students will use the editing mechanics of spelling, indentation, punctuation, grammar, and capitalization.

 

Writing Strategies

Students will link paragraphs into a cohesive structure.

Students will write for different purposes.

Students will write from different perspectives.

Students will use the writing process to prepare for publication.

Students will incorporate feedback from adults and peers through revising and editing.

 

Writing Responses

Students will write a summary of expository texts including the main topic, main ideas, and supporting details.

Students will respond to text through logs or journals.

 

Multicultural Concepts/Themes

            This unit will include some of the experiences and perspectives of the Oneida, Ojibwa, Menominee, Ho-Chunk, Stockbridge-Munsee, and Potawatomi of Wisconsin regarding their origins, lifestyles, values and beliefs, first contact with Europeans, and effects of this contact on their traditional lifestyle. The unit will incorporate critical thinking skills and the analysis of diverse viewpoints.

 


The First People Of Wisconsin: Background Knowledge

None of the Native Americans in Wisconsin or in North America subscribe to the theory that native people migrated from Asia across the Bering Strait to North America. Each tribe usually has their own creation story as to how they came to be and their migrations, but all agree native people were created in North America.

 

I. Ho-Chunk Tribe

What were the people's origins?

            The Ho-Chunk was one of the original tribes living in Wisconsin. Some sources say the tribe originally lived in southeastern Wisconsin, then moved to the area around Green Bay. Recent Ho-Chunk sources state that the Ho-Chunk originally lived near the city of Green Bay and south and westward covering a good part of the state. According to Ho-Chunk oral traditions, the Red Banks, northeast of Green Bay, is the location of origin for the Ho-Chunk and all origin stories make reference to the area. By the late 1700s, Ho-Chunk villages were scattered around Lake Winnebago.

 

What was the tribe's traditional lifestyle?

            The Ho-Chunk built chepotakay or roundhouses similar to wigwams for living in, made by bending saplings as a frame and covering with large strips of bark. All of these materials came from the wooded areas where the tribe lived. The roundhouses generally housed one family, likely the extended family because that was the primary social unit. Because the Ho-Chunk moved to obtain the food they needed, they left the wooden frame in place, and took the bark with them to cover the wigwam frame at their next location. In the spring, the Ho-Chunk collected maple sap, made maple sugar, and the men prepared ground for planting. In the summer, women grew foods in gardens such as corn (the most important crop), squash, and potatoes and collected foods grown wild. The men hunted and fished. Fishing went on year-round. In the fall, the people broke into small groups to harvest wild rice while men hunted, and in winter men hunted small animals and fished.

            Women prepared the food grown, gathered, or hunted to eat and dried or smoked food to eat later. While men were engaged in winter hunting and fishing, women were making and repairing clothing and elders were often passing on the tribal history and values through story-telling. Everyone had to cooperate and share in order to meet their basic needs. Due to the interdependence among the people, the Ho-Chunk tended to be egalitarian and share power equally.

            The Ho-Chunk were organized through clans with the children belonging to the clan of their fathers and could marry only outside their clan. Young children were cared for by women and elders. Elders were knowledgeable, wise, patient, and generous. Their advice was listened to and they were honored with gifts of food and material goods. After age seven, boys were taught by male family members how to hunt and fish. Girls remained with women and elders and taught how to care for the dwelling and the young, prepare hides for clothing, and learn the arts of basket making, weaving, and embroidery.

            Clothing was made from skins and furs, especially deerskins. The women tanned the skins and sewed skins together. In summer, people dressed to stay cool. Women wore sleeveless dresses or wrap around skirts, leggings, and moccasins. Men wore breech cloths, leggings, and moccasins. In winter, they lined their moccasins with rabbit fur and wrapped themselves in heavy deer or bear fur robes. Men also wore shirts for warmth. Children wore clothing similar to the adults.

 

What were important values and beliefs?

            The people were thankful for the plants and animals which enabled the people to live. People cannot own land or rivers. Each should take what is needed and gather no more than what can be used. Cooperation, communal sharing, and generosity were valued more than the accumulation of material goods.

 

What were the first relationships with Europeans and how did these affect the traditional lifestyle?

            The first Europeans to encounter the Ho-Chunk were French fur traders. Fur traders wanted to obtain furs for clothing worn in Europe. Native Americans knew how to hunt to provide food and clothing for their tribes and already engaged in trading with one another for different goods. The native nations had followed a hunting ethic which required taking only what was needed for food and clothing. The pressure to hunt more heavily to provide furs for trade and obtain European goods in return led to the tribes' increased hunting and the eventual depletion of fur-bearing animals on the east coast.

            The tribes accepted and used certain goods such as metal implements, cloth, firearms, glass beads, silver ornaments, and liquor. These materials led to changes in the nations' lifestyles. Metal kettles began to be used for cooking leading to the decline of making pottery or birchbark baskets for food preparation. Metal tools made it easier for native people to build canoes, process skins, hunt, fish, and farm. Firearms gradually were used more than bows and arrows. Men began to spend more time hunting for furs to exchange rather than for self-sufficiency and moved further away from their homes. The availability of trade cloth, glass beads, and silk ribbons through trade led to the women's integration of these materials in the creation of clothing utilizing traditional designs.

            Generally, the relationship between the French fur traders and tribes in Wisconsin was good. A number of French traders tried to understand native culture. They lived part of the time in native villages, learned tribal languages and customs, and adopted some of the native lifestyle. If they married native women, they usually provided for their relatives and were incorporated into the tribes. This good relationship led to the Ho-Chunk siding with the French in the French and Indian War, which was fought between the British and French for control of the fur trade. The Ho-Chunk eventually accepted British traders, even though they were less generous than the French in gift giving, more arrogant, and less respectful in their interactions with native people. During the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, the Ho-Chunk fought on the side of the British. Native populations diminished during the fur trade era due to European diseases and deaths from wars.

 

II. Menominee Tribe

What were the people's origins?

            The Menominee was one of the original tribes living in Wisconsin, living in the eastern half of Wisconsin, especially around the mouth of the Menominee River.

 

What was the tribe's traditional lifestyle?

            The Menominee built wiikiops (wih-key-ups) similar to wigwams for living in. The summer home was a rectangular cabin covered with elm or cedar bark which was easy to remove from the trees. Tall poles were used for the frame and tied together. The summer lodge was open and airy. The winter home was built from bent poles to create a dome shaped dwelling. The poles were then covered with large strips of bark. A fire was built inside for warmth, with a hole in the ceiling for smoke to escape. A circle of stones was placed around the fire which heated up and kept the home warm throughout the night. All of these materials came from the wooded areas where the tribe lived. The wiikiops generally housed one family, likely the extended family because that was the primary social unit. Because the Menominee moved to obtain the food they needed, they left the wooden frame in place, and took the bark with them to cover the wigwam frame at their next location. In the spring, the Menominee collected maple sap, made maple sugar, and the men prepared ground for planting. In the summer, women grew foods in gardens such as corn, squash, and potatoes and collected foods grown wild. The men hunted and fished. Fishing went on year-round. In the fall, the people broke into small groups to harvest wild rice while men hunted, and in winter men hunted small animals and fished.

            Women prepared the food grown, gathered, or hunted to eat and dried or smoked food to eat later. While men were engaged in winter hunting and fishing, women were making and repairing clothing and elders were often passing on the tribal history and values through story-telling. Everyone had to cooperate and share in order to meet their basic needs. Due to the interdependence among the people, the Menominee tended to be egalitarian and share power equally.

            The Menominee were organized through clans with the children belonging to the clan of their fathers and could marry only outside their clan. Young children were cared for by women and elders. Elders were knowledgeable, wise, patient, and generous. Their advice was listened to and they were honored with gifts of food and material goods. After age seven, boys were taught by male family members how to hunt and fish. Girls remained with women and elders and taught how to care for the dwelling and the young, prepare hides for clothing, and learn the arts of basket making, weaving, and embroidery.

            Clothing was made from skins and furs, especially deerskins. The women tanned the skins and sewed skins together. In summer, people dressed to stay cool. Women wore sleeveless dresses or wrap around skirts, leggings, and moccasins. Men wore breech cloths, leggings, and moccasins. In winter, they lined their moccasins with rabbit fur and wrapped themselves in heavy deer or bear fur robes. Men also wore shirts for warmth. Children wore clothing similar to the adults.

 

What were important values and beliefs?

            The people were thankful for the plants and animals which enabled the people to live. Cooperation, communal sharing, and generosity were valued more than the accumulation of material goods. The elderly were respected and listened to.

 

What were the first relationships with Europeans and how did these affect the traditional lifestyle?

            The first Europeans to encounter the Menominee were French fur traders. Fur traders wanted to obtain furs for clothing worn in Europe. Native Americans knew how to hunt to provide food and clothing for their tribes and already engaged in trading with one another for different goods. The native nations had followed a hunting ethic which required taking only what was needed for food and clothing. The pressure to hunt more heavily to provide furs for trade and obtain European goods in return led to the tribes' increased hunting and the eventual depletion of fur-bearing animals on the east coast.

            The tribes accepted and used certain goods such as metal implements, cloth, firearms, glass beads, silver ornaments, and liquor. These materials led to changes in the nations' lifestyles. Metal kettles began to be used for cooking leading to the decline of making pottery or birchbark baskets for food preparation. Metal tools made it easier for native people to build canoes, process skins, hunt, fish, and farm. Firearms gradually were used more than bows and arrows. Men began to spend more time hunting for furs to exchange rather than for self-sufficiency and moved further away from their homes. The availability of trade cloth, glass beads, and silk ribbons through trade led to the women's integration of these materials in the creation of clothing utilizing traditional designs.

            Generally, the relationship between the French fur traders and tribes in Wisconsin was good. A number of French traders tried to understand native culture. They lived part of the time in native villages, learned tribal languages and customs, and adopted some of the native lifestyle. If they married native women, they usually provided for their relatives and were incorporated into the tribes. This good relationship led to the Menominee siding with the French in the French and Indian War, which was fought between the British and French for control of the fur trade. The Menominee eventually accepted British traders, even though they were less generous than the French in gift giving, more arrogant, and less respectful in their interactions with native people. During the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, the Menominee fought on the side of the British. Native populations diminished during the fur trade era due to European diseases and deaths from wars.

 

III. Ojibwa Tribe

What were the people's origins?

            The Ojibwa originally lived near the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, but migrated west until they finally settled on Madeline Island, just off the northern tip of Wisconsin. Several Ojibwa bands moved into Wisconsin during the 1600s.

 

 

What was the tribe's traditional lifestyle?

            The Ojibwa women worked together and built wigwams for living in by bending saplings as a frame and covering with large strips of bark. All of these materials came from the wooded areas where the tribe lived. The wigwams generally housed one family, likely the extended family because that was the primary social unit. Family members were assigned spaces to put their bedding and other personal belongings. The floor was covered with cedar boughs and rush mats with cooking fires built at the center. Because the Ojibwa had a migratory lifestyle and moved to obtain the food they needed, they left the wooden frame in place, and took the bark with them to cover the wigwam frame at their next location. In the spring, the Ojibwa often built peaked lodges made by placing a long ridge pole at the top of a pole frame and then covering with sheets of birchbark. These were the dwellings at the sugar camp when they collected maple sap, made maple sugar, and the men prepared ground for planting. In the summer, women built rectangular elm bark houses or summer wigwams, grew foods in gardens such as corn, squash, and beans, and collected foods grown wild. The men hunted and fished. Fishing went on year-round. In the fall, the people broke into small groups to harvest wild rice while men hunted, and in winter men hunted small animals and fished.

            Women prepared the food grown, gathered, or hunted to eat and dried or smoked food to eat later. While men were engaged in winter hunting and fishing, women were making and repairing clothing and elders were often passing on the tribal history and values through story-telling. Everyone had to cooperate and share in order to meet their basic needs. Due to the interdependence among the people, The Ojibwa tended to be egalitarian and share power equally.

            The Ojibwa were organized through clans with the children belonging to the clan of their fathers and could marry only outside their clan. Young children were cared for by women and elders. Babies were carried about on a cradleboard and slept in a tiny hammock. Elders were knowledgeable, wise, patient, and generous. Their advice was listened to and they were honored with gifts of food and material goods. After age seven, boys were taught by male family members how to hunt and fish. Girls remained with women and elders and taught how to care for the dwelling and the young, prepare hides for clothing, and learn the arts of basket making, weaving, and embroidery.

            Clothing was made from skins and furs, especially deerskins. The women tanned the skins and sewed skins together. In summer, people dressed to stay cool. Women wore sleeveless dresses or wrap around skirts, leggings, and moccasins. Men wore breech cloths, leggings, and moccasins. In winter, they lined their moccasins with rabbit fur and wrapped themselves in heavy deer or bear fur robes. Men also wore shirts for warmth. Children wore clothing similar to the adults.

 

What were important values and beliefs?

            The people were thankful for the plants and animals which enabled the people to live. Cooperation, communal sharing, and generosity were valued more than the accumulation of material goods. The elderly were respected and listened to.

 

What were the first relationships with Europeans and how did these affect the traditional lifestyle?

            The first Europeans to encounter the Ojibwa were French fur traders. Fur traders wanted to obtain furs for clothing worn in Europe. Native Americans knew how to hunt to provide food and clothing for their tribes and already engaged in trading with one another for different goods. The native nations had followed a hunting ethic which required taking only what was needed for food and clothing. The pressure to hunt more heavily to provide furs for trade and obtain European goods in return led to the tribes' increased hunting and the eventual depletion of fur-bearing animals on the east coast.

            The tribes accepted and used certain goods such as metal implements, cloth, firearms, glass beads, silver ornaments, and liquor. These materials led to changes in the nations' lifestyles. Metal kettles began to be used for cooking leading to the decline of making pottery or birchbark baskets for food preparation. Metal tools made it easier for native people to build canoes, process skins, hunt, fish, and farm. Firearms gradually were used more than bows and arrows. Men began to spend more time hunting for furs to exchange rather than for self-sufficiency and moved further away from their homes. The availability of trade cloth, glass beads, and silk ribbons through trade led to the women's integration of these materials in the creation of clothing utilizing traditional designs.

            Generally, the relationship between the French fur traders and tribes in Wisconsin was good. A number of French traders tried to understand native culture. They lived part of the time in native villages, learned tribal languages and customs, and adopted some of the native lifestyle. If they married native women, they usually provided for their relatives and were incorporated into the tribes. This good relationship led to the Ojibwa siding with the French in the French and Indian War, which was fought between the British and French for control of the fur trade. The Ojibwa eventually accepted British traders, even though they were less generous than the French in gift giving, more arrogant, and less respectful in their interactions with native people. During the Revolutionary War, the Ojibwa remained neutral. Native populations diminished during the fur trade era due to European diseases and deaths from wars.

 

IV. Potawatomi Tribe

What were the people's origins?

            The Potawatomi people were part of a huge group of Indians living along the gulf of the St. Lawrence River near the Atlantic Ocean. This group called themselves "Neshnabe," or "original people." The Neshnabe were created by Gitchie Manito--the Great Miracle. The Megis Shell, a sacred shell, was the guide for the migration of the people. Each time the Megis Shell appeared to them, the Neshnabe moved. As they moved, three groups began to emerge, the Ottawa, the Ojibwa, and the Potawatomi who were charged with "keeping of the fire." When the Neshnabe reached Sault Saint Marie in Michigan, they split into two groups. The Ottawa and Potawatomi moved down into the lower peninsula of Michigan settling on the lands there and building villages. By 1641 the Potawatomi moved out of Michigan into Wisconsin, at first settling on the Door Peninsula.

 

What was the tribe's traditional lifestyle?

            The Potawatomi built dome-shaped homes called wigwams. Their lifestyle was affected by the four seasons. Each season they moved and built villages. In the summer they moved to areas good for farming. In the winter they moved to good hunting grounds in sheltered valleys to keep out the winter weather. In the spring, they often traveled south to hunt buffalo. Fishing went on each season. Women frequently were in charge of farming, cooking, and creating clothing while men were in charge of hunting, fishing, and protecting the village. They cooperated in making canoes and moving. The activities of both genders were respected and each gender governed its own sphere.

            By 1800, the Potawatomi grew in numbers in spread out into a larger area. They lived in over 50 villages spread along the Mississippi River, south to northern Illinois and east into northern Indiana and southern Michigan.

            The nuclear family was the economic unit; the extended family supported the nuclear family and its tasks. The clan organization governed external relationships of the family, from marriage to politics. One had to marry outside one's clan. Members of the clans were related through the male family members. Villages usually consisted of many different clans. Decisions were made communally and power shared equally among women and men. The extended family, especially the elders, contributed significantly to the socialization of children.

 

What were important values and beliefs?

            Mother Earth was to be respected for providing all that the Potawatomi needed for living. All living things should live in harmony with one another, including plants and animals. All tribes are brothers because they are part of Mother Earth; therefore it is important to get along with others. Children should not be punished for negative behaviors, but taught through example and imitation of adult activities. Elders are to be respected and listened to. Generosity and communal sharing is more important than accumulation of material goods.

 

 

What were the first relationships with Europeans and how did these affect the traditional lifestyle?

            The Potawatomi engaged in fur trading with the French by the middle of the 1600s. The Potawatomi provided furs and received iron tools and cooking utensils, glass beads, cloth blankets, and firearms from French fur traders. During the fur trade era, the Potawatomi modified their lifestyle by engaging in more hunting for furs rather than hunting for survival. Metal kettles began to be used for cooking leading to the decline of making pottery or birchbark baskets for food preparation. Metal tools made it easier for native people to build canoes, process skins, hunt, fish, and farm. Firearms gradually were used more than bows and arrows. These two groups developed a good relationship; many Frenchmen married Indian women. The Potawatomi helped the French in wars against the Iroquois, Fox, and Mascouten as well as against the British who were trying to take over the area and control the fur trade.

            However, the British succeeded in taking over the area and controlling the fur trade completely by 1760 (after the French and Indian War). The Potawatomi tried to get along with British after the French were forced from the area. When the colonists fought with the British during the Revolutionary War, the Potawatomi sided and fought with the British since they had developed a good relationship. They again sided with the British in the British attempt to gain control of the U.S. during the War of 1812.

            As with other tribes in Wisconsin, the Potawatomi suffered from these wars and European diseases which reduced the numbers of the people.

 

V. Oneida Tribe

What were the people's origins?

            The Oneida were part of the Iroquois Confederacy, an organization of five nations (the Mohawks, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, the Senecas, and the Oneidas) who lived close to one another in the areas now known as New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, agreed not to fight against each other, and make decisions which affected the Confederacy. The five nations had similar lifestyles, social and political organizations, clothing, and art. The Oneida lived in the area now known as the state of New York until 1820 when a group moved to Wisconsin.

 

What was the tribe's traditional lifestyle?

            The Oneida lived in relatively permanent dwellings of longhouses for a period of 10 to 15 years. They obtained food through fishing, hunting, and gardening, and moved when the soil was exhausted and the fish and game population diminished. The longhouses were 50 to 150 feet in length and made from logs and bark which housed several families all belonging to the same clan. Members of the clans were related through the female family members. Senior women were clan leaders and chose the men to serve as chiefs and represent the nation at confederacy meetings.

            The social life of the families sharing a longhouse took place in the long hallway down the center. Fires were built for cooking and light at night. Individual families had compartments built on wooden platforms above the ground which could be curtained off with skins for privacy at night. Above platforms for sleeping were platforms for storing cooking utensils, clothes, hunting equipment, and other possessions.

            Young children were cared for by women and elders. Elders were knowledgeable, wise, patient, and generous. Their advice was listened to and they were honored with gifts of food and material goods. After age seven, boys were taught by male family members how to hunt and fish. Girls remained with women and elders and taught how to care for the dwelling and the young, prepare hides for clothing, and learn the arts of basket making, weaving, and embroidery.

            Clothing was made from skins and furs, especially deerskins. The women tanned the skins and sewed skins together. In summer, people dressed to stay cool. Women wore sleeveless dresses or wrap around skirts, leggings, and moccasins. Men wore breech cloths, leggings, and moccasins. In winter, they lined their moccasins with rabbit fur and wrapped themselves in heavy deer or bear fur robes. Men also wore shirts for warmth. Children wore clothing similar to the adults.

 

What were important values and beliefs?

            The people were thankful for the plants and animals which enabled the people to live. Cooperation, communal sharing, and generosity were valued more than the accumulation of material goods. The elderly were respected and listened to.

 

What were the first relationships with Europeans and how did these affect the traditional lifestyle?

            The first Europeans to encounter the Oneida were Dutch fur traders. Fur traders wanted to obtain furs for clothing worn in Europe. Native Americans knew how to hunt to provide food and clothing for their tribes and already engaged in trading with one another for different goods. The native nations had followed a hunting ethic which required taking only what was needed for food and clothing. The pressure to hunt more heavily to provide furs for trade and obtain European goods in return led to the tribes' increased hunting and the eventual depletion of fur-bearing animals on the east coast.

            The tribes accepted and used certain goods such as metal implements, cloth, firearms, glass beads, silver ornaments, and liquor. These materials led to changes in the nations' lifestyles. Metal kettles began to be used for cooking leading to the decline of making pottery or birchbark baskets for food preparation. Metal tools made it easier for native people to build canoes, process skins, hunt, fish, and farm. Firearms gradually were used more than bows and arrows. Men began to spend more time hunting for furs to exchange rather than for self-sufficiency and moved further away from their homes. The availability of trade cloth, glass beads, and silk ribbons through trade led to the women's integration of these materials in the creation of clothing utilizing traditional designs. For the Oneida especially during the fur trade era, their clothing began to show more European influence with cloth gradually replacing skins.

            During the French and Indian War, the Oneida tribes fought on the side of the British for control of the fur trade while other nations in the Iroquois Confederation fought on the side of the French. This difference led to a distancing of the Oneidas within the confederacy. During the Revolutionary War, some of the Oneida fought for the British and some for the colonists which contributed to divisions within the tribe and the eventual movement of a group of Oneidas to Wisconsin in 1820. Native populations diminished during the fur trade era due to European diseases and deaths from wars.

 

VI. Stockbridge-Munsee Tribe

What were the people's origins?

            Mohican history records a great people came from the north and west. They crossed the waters where the lands almost touched (this is likely around the Great Lakes area). The people lived on these lands for many years and built settlements which they left behind when they moved on. They were looking for a place where the waters were never still, like the land of their origins. After a long journey, the people settled in the east. They divided into different groups and dialects. The oldest of these, the Muh-he-con-ne-ok or Mohicans, lived along the Muh-he-con-ne-tuk, later called Hudson's River. The waters of this river are never still because of the tides' influence. The Mohicans lived there, forming the great Mohican Confederacy, for several hundred years before the arrival of Europeans.

            The Stockbridge Indians were originally part of the Mohican Confederacy. They lived on lands in what is now known as New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Vermont. The Munsee were part of the Delaware Confederacy. They lived east and west of the Delaware River in what is now known as Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York. Both the Munsee and the Mohicans or Stockbridge lived in the same general area, so easily became one tribe.

            After more and more Europeans settled on the east coast, the Stockbridge were pushed from their land and first relocated in New Stockbridge in New York to live close to the Oneida. Several land companies wanted the State of New York to force the Native people out so they could profit from land sales, so the Stockbridge leader led the group to the White River area in what is now known as Indiana to live with the Miami and Delaware. By the time the Stockbridge arrived, the Delaware had been forced to sell their land. The State of New York negotiated with the Menominee and Winnebago for land to relocate Indians there, including the Stockbridge. In 1834 the Stockbridge moved to land east of Lake Winnebago in what became Wisconsin and were later joined by Munsee families to form the Stockbridge and Munsee Indians. They eventually moved to the present reservation in Shawano County in 1856.

 

What was the tribe's traditional lifestyle?

            Both the Mohicans and Munsee lived in forested areas and built their homes near rivers so they could obtain water and food easily. Their village homes were wigwams and were circular and made of bent saplings covered with hides or bark. They also built longhouses for homes 50 to 150 feet long with curved roofs shingled with elm bark. Although the longhouses had no windows, they built smoke holes every 20 feet. Many families lived in each longhouse.

            In the spring, the women planted gardens and the men fished by paddling dugout and bark canoes to spear or net herring and shad in nearby rivers. In late summer or fall, men hunted animals in the woods. After the harvest, they stored dried meat, vegetables, and smoked fish in pits dug deep in the ground and lined with grass or bark. During the winter, the people made utensils and containers, repaired hunting gear and tools, and made pottery. Women made clothing and blankets from hide and decorated with porcupine quills, shells, and other objects from nature. When the food supply dwindled, the man traveled by snowshoe to hunt game. In the spring, the women made maple sugar and began planting while men fished. The activities of women and men were equally valued the people lived in harmony with the seasons. They found everything they needed came from Mother Earth.

            Women created clothing from animal skins, primarily tanned deer hides. These were made into dresses and leggings for the women and breechcloths and leggings for the men decorated with wampum or shells and porcupine quills. Leggings protected the legs. Moccasins were also made from one piece of animal skin, with soft soles.

 

What were important values and beliefs?

            The Mohicans and Munsee believed in the importance of sharing for the survival of all tribal members. They also believed in living in harmony with nature since nature provided all the people needed for survival. Elders were respected and listened to.

 

What were the first relationships with Europeans and how did these affect the traditional lifestyle?

            The Mohicans first had contact with Europeans in 1609 when they encountered Henry Hudson, a Dutch trader, who was looking for beaver and otter furs. The Mohicans greeted him with curiosity and began trading furs. Unfortunately, as the fur trade grew, the Mohicans and Mohawks were in conflict over who was going to control the fur trade. The Mohicans were driven from their lands and perhaps settled near rivers in what are now the states of Connecticut and Massachusetts. As the number of fur-bearing animals decreased, there was an increase in the number of wars among tribes in the area for control of the fur trade. The fur trade led to changes in the Mohican lifestyle including the decline of making traditional crafts due to the availability of new goods through trade. Boundaries between tribes limited where they lived and hunted. The Mohicans became more dependent on European products rather than themselves and Mother Earth to provide their basic needs.

            The English also changed the Mohican lifestyle through efforts to convert the Mohicans to Christianity and give up their own religion. Converting Native people to Christianity was part of the efforts Europeans used to "civilize" Native Americans. John Sergeant, a missionary, came to live with the Mohicans and was given permission to start a mission village, called Stockbridge, located in what is now Massachusetts. The people, both Mohican and Munsee Indians were now called Stockbridge Indians.

            During the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, the Mohicans fought on the side of the colonists in the colonists' battle with the British over British rule in North America. Ironically these wars were over land taken from Native people. Nearly half of the Mohican men were killed in these wars and many villages completely destroyed. The Europeans also brought diseases such as smallpox and measles which led to greater deaths among Native people. During the late 1700s and early 1800s, the Stockbridge were forced to migrate west from their homelands due to pressure from increasing numbers of European settlers. They moved to New Stockbridge in New York. However, land companies pressured the New York state government to force the Stockbridge out so they could use their rich farm and timber lands. This led to the migration of Stockbridge to move first to Indiana and then to Wisconsin.

            The contact with Europeans led to the disruption of the traditional way of life for the Mohicans. Their original ceremonies were replaced by Christian customs. Few people spoke the Mohican language, traditional dress was worn less frequently, and seasonal activities were abandoned. However, the arts of basket-making and silversmithing continued.

 

 Activities

Introduction To Unit

1. Provide opportunities for students to illustrate what they know about the topic prior to beginning the study in order to understand students' prior knowledge and questions they may have. For example, you may ask students to list everything they can think of when they hear the phrase "Wisconsin Indians." Follow up questions might be: What are the names of the tribes? What were their lives like before they discovered Europeans? How did they get the food, clothing, and shelter they needed? How did the tribes get to Wisconsin? How did they get along with the first Europeans they discovered? Students can create individual lists on K (Know), W (Want to Know), L (Learned) charts which can be compiled into class charts.

 

2. Students might also prepare concept maps to show what they already know about the six Wisconsin Native American tribes. Each main concept: origins, lifestyles, values and beliefs, and contact with first Europeans is placed in the middle of a piece of paper with words or phrases which come to mind related to the concept placed in a web design around the main concept. A class concept map could be created summarizing the students' ideas.

 

3. Students might divide a large piece of paper into four sections and draw what they understand about Wisconsin tribes' origins, lifestyles, values and beliefs, and contact with Europeans. Teachers could ask students to explain their drawings during a conference.

 

4. At intervals during the unit, students add what they are learning to the L portion of the chart so that by the end, the chart provides a brief summary of what they learned.

 

5. Students may complete another concept map or drawing to illustrate their new understandings of the Wisconsin tribes at the end of the unit.

 


Origins Of Wisconsin Native Americans

 

1. Encourage students to speculate on how the six tribes in Wisconsin might have come to exist. Have students discuss possibilities with a partner or small group. Then have students read, illustrate, and discuss the meanings of the creation stories of the different tribes. See Keepers of the Fire: The History of the Potawatomi Indians of Wisconsin, The History of the Menominee Indians, The History of the Hochungra People: Winnebago Tribe of Wisconsin, The Anishinabe: An Overview Unit of the History and Background of the Wisconsin Ojibway Indian Tribe, The History of the Stockbridge Munsee Band of Mohican Indians (second edition), and The History of the Oneida Indians for the stories and chapters 3-8 of Native People of Wisconsin. Another version of the Anishinabe (or Ojibwa) creation story and migration is found in The Mishomis Book: The Voice of the Ojibway, A Mishomis Book: A History-Coloring Book of the Ojibway Indians. Book 1: The Ojibway Creation Story, The Ojibwa (by McCarthy) and The Good Path: Ojibwe Learning and Activity Book for Kids. A description of the prophecies which included the migration of the Ojibway both east and west is included in The Seven Fires: An Ojibway Prophecy. Additional versions of the Ho-Chunk creation stories and the people's migration into the Great Lakes area are included in part one of Folklore of the Winnebago Tribe. The video Ho Chunk Stories (31 minutes in length) provides new evidence that the Ho Chunk or Winnebago ancestors were effigy mound builders and rock artists, proving they have lived in Wisconsin as early as 350 A. D. Other renditions of the Potawatomi creation story and the migration to Wisconsin are included in chapters 1 and 2 of The Potawatomi (Clifton) and the “Introduction” and “History” chapters of The Potawatomi (Powell). Additional versions of the Iroquois or Oneida creation story include the picture books The Woman Who Fell from the Sky, The Oneida (by McLester and Torres) and Skywoman: Legends of the Iroquois. For another version of the Menominee creation story, see The Menominee by Fowler. Discuss how these stories differ from the Bering Strait Theory of the origins of native people which asserts that Native American ancestors migrated from Asia to what is now Alaska over a land bridge, the Bering Strait, which no longer exists. These people eventually spread out all over North and South America and developed into current Native American tribes. Discuss the values of these different native nations which the creation stories encompass.

 

2. Ask students to locate and mark the origins of each Wisconsin tribe on a U.S. map, then trace the migration routes for the Ojibwa, Potawatomi, and Oneida as they moved west into Wisconsin. See The Good Path: Ojibwe Learning and Activity Book for Kids for an explanation of the Lenni Lenape as the Ojibwa’s ancestors and the Ojibwa’s westward migration the area around the St. Lawrence River on the east coast to Madeline Island. For substantial background information on the factors contributing to Oneida’s loss of land in New York and a group of Oneida moving to Wisconsin, see The Oneida Indian Journey: From New York to Wisconsin 1784–1860.

 

3. Request students to compare and contrast maps showing the original lands of the Wisconsin tribes with maps showing reservation areas and communities today. Lead a discussion on these questions: What differences do you notice? Why might these differences have occurred?

 

4. Invite students to prepare a timeline showing when the tribes moved to or lived in Wisconsin.

 

5. Introduce students to the video "Reflections of the Indians of Wisconsin" (20 minutes) focusing on how and when the six tribes came to Wisconsin. The video also contains current economic and social/cultural activities of the tribes which could be viewed or omitted. Individually, with partners, and with the class, have students summarize what they learned from the video.

 

6. Encourage students to explore the roles John W. Quinney and Electa Quinney served in helping the Stockbridge-Munsee people in their migration to Wisconsin? See the teaching picture for John W. Quinney in the classroom poster set Advocates for Change and the section on Electa Quinney (page 2) in Uncommon Lives of Common Women. John Quinney led the Stockbridge-Munsee Native Americans from New York to their first location in Wisconsin while Electa Quinney served as a teacher for Stockbridge-Munsee children in both New York and Wisconsin.

 

Lifestyles Of Wisconsin Native Americans

1. Show students photographs of the physical environment of Wisconsin (see texts From Sea to Shining Sea: Wisconsin and Wisconsin: A Picture Book to Remember Her By for examples of photographs). Encourage students to observe the photographs carefully and think about how the tribes might survive in this physical environment. What food might they eat? What materials would they use to make their dwellings and clothing? Students individually should list ideas, then share ideas with a partner or small group, then discuss as a total class. For a brief written description of the physical area around Lake Winnebago and the paths Native people traveled around the lake, read aloud the brief descriptions “Before the Plow” and “Prehistoric Trails” from the booklet A Proud Heritage: History of Native Americans East Shore of Lake Winnebago.

 

2. Assign students to work in small groups to make a chart or diagram summarizing the housing, food, clothing, transportation, and the roles for women, men, and children for one of the tribes so that each tribe is represented. Compare and contrast the lifestyles of the different tribes. Speculate on reasons for similarities and differences (physical environment, clan organization, or proximity to other native nations). The importance of water for transportation and food is described in chapters 2 and 6 in Working with Water: Wisconsin Waterways. A good teacher resource for the traditional lifestyle of each tribe is Native American Communities in Wisconsin 1600-1960: A Study of Tradition and Change. Teachers might also consult chapter 6 “Corn as a Cultural Center of the Haudenosaunee Way of Life” in Iroquois Corn in a Culture-Based Curriculum: A Framework for Respectfully Teaching about Cultures for a description of traditional life among the Iroquois (including the Oneida) prior to contact with Europeans and The Oneida Indian Journey: From New York to Wisconsin 1784–1860, especially chapter 4 for a description of traditional Oneida life during the 19th century. See the individual curriculum guides for each tribe published by the American Indian Language and Culture Education Board for resources, pp. 1-9 from Visions and Voices: Winnebago Elders Speak to the Children, the children’s book Mountain Wolf Woman: A Ho-Chunk Girlhood (Holliday), chapter 1 from The Potawatomi (Clifton) and the chapters focusing on “Food,” “Clothing,” “Transportation,” and “Dwellings” from The Potawatomi (Powell), the picture books The Menominee by Fowler, The Ojibwa (by McCarthy), and The Oneida (by McLester and Torrees), chapter 3 from The Iroquois, and the texts People of the Longhouse: How the Iroquoian Tribes Lived and The Iroquois: A First Americans Book. The Good Path: Ojibwe Learning and Activity Book for Kids, chapters 3 and 6, provide a description of the seasonal Ojibwa seasonal lifestyle. Picture books from the series Native Nations of North American provide valuable illustrations and text appropriate for students dealing with Native nations’ traditional lifestyle, cultural values, and roles of women, men, children, and elders. See Life in a longhouse village by Kalman, Life in an Anishinabe camp by Walker, Native nations of the western Great Lakes by Smithyman and Kalman, and chapters 3-8 of Native People of Wisconsin.

 

Emphasize the importance of women among the Iroquois nations, including the Oneida. See chapter 3 "Iroquois Women and the Village World" in The Tried and the True: Native American Women Confronting Colonization and the texts People of the Longhouse: How the Iroquoian Tribes Lived, The Iroquois: A First Americans Book, and Sisters in Spirit: Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Influence on Early American Feminists. The legend “Jikonsahseh, Mother of Nations” from Skywoman: Legends of the Iroquois explains how clanmothers’ role of selecting and deposing leaders among the Iroquois came to be. For a portrayal of how Hochunk women learned food preparation, basketry, weaving mats, beading, and becoming strong women from their mothers and grandmothers, show the video Her Mother Before Her: Winnebago Women's Stories of Their Mothers and Grandmothers (19 minutes).

 

3. For more advanced readers to gain additional knowledge about the traditional Iroquois lifestyle, housing, clothing, recreation, roles of women, men, boys, and girls, beliefs, and values before contact with Europeans, encourage them to read the novel Children of the Longhouse. Emphasize that the text is a novel, so some parts are fictional, but is based on a Mohawk village of the late 15th century.

 

4. Show students the video Native Americans: People of the Forest (24 minutes), which portrays the historical re-enactment of Ojibwa family/village life before contact with Europeans. The main character Little Flower complains about the limitations of traditional activities for girls and desires to hunt as boys do. Ask students to summarize what they learned about building wigwams, making birchbark baskets, cooking, trapping, fishing, healing sick family members, and playing games from the video. Invite students to respond to Little Flower’s complaints that boys get to do more enjoyable tasks while girls must work and support their responses with reasons for the importance of each activity.

 

5. Allow students to explore freely and discuss with each other drawings or pictures (without captions) of native people's activities to learn more about the lifestyle of the Wisconsin tribes. Then have students draw and write about what they learned from the pictures. Sources for pictures include Ojibway Indians Coloring Book, Woodland Indians of Wisconsin (folder of drawings and copied photographs with brief explanations), and Classroom Activities on Wisconsin Indian Treaties and Tribal Sovereignty. See History Workshop for a more comprehensive approach to this activity.

 

6. Lead students in analyzing drawings or pictures of native people's activities without captions through inquiry. Sources for pictures include Ojibway Indians Coloring Book, Woodland Indians of Wisconsin (folder of drawings and copied photographs with brief explanations), and Classroom Activities on Wisconsin Indian Treaties and Tribal Sovereignty which illustrate growing, hunting, and gathering food; preparing and preserving food; building canoes; making tools and containers; and preparing clothing. This activity encourages students to observe carefully, speculate, use background knowledge and any other clues to respond to the questions. This activity also stimulates interest in learning more about the activities portrayed in the pictures. Develop such inquiry questions as:

What seems to be happening in the picture?

Who seems to be engaging in the activity?

Why are the people engaged in this activity?

What tools and materials are the people using?

What skills do the people need to complete the activity?

What does this picture tell you about the values, beliefs, and/or lifestyle of the people portrayed?

 

7. Persuade students to create a booklet illustrating with drawings and words the seasonal lifestyle of each tribe. Draw and explain the different activities each tribe engages in each season. Resources showing seasonal characteristics of all Woodland tribes include chapters 3-8 of Native People of Wisconsin and the September, 1974 Prehistoric Indians issue of Badger History. Learning from the Land: Wisconsin Land Use provides a brief description of the seasonal lifestyle of the Ojibwa, Menominee, and Ho-Chunk prior to discovering Europeans on pp. 19-20. See the individual curriculum guides for each tribe published by the American Indian Language and Culture Education Board for resources. For the Ho-Chunk see Woodland Indians cassette tapes. For the Ojibway, see the Ojibway Indians Coloring Book, Ojibway Family Life in Minnesota: 20th Century Sketches, The Good Path: Ojibwe Learning and Activity Book for Kids, the article “In the Cycle of the Four Seasons” in the November, 1998 issue of Cobblestone magazine, the fall, 2001 Masinaigan Supplement Growing Up Ojibwe (available from the Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission), the videos Enduring Ways of the Lac du Flambeau People and Preserving the Harvest (30 minutes), the illustrations from the Ojibwa legend Peboan and Seegwun and Woodland Indians cassette tapes for seasonal activities. An adult resource for the Ojibway seasonal lifestyle is Paths of the People: The Ojibwe in the Chippewa Valley. For the Potawatomi see chapter 1 in The Potawatomi.

 

8. After studying the seasonal lifestyle of each Native nation, encourage students to speculate the Ojibwa names for the months of the year, based on the important activities of the seasons. Introduce the English terms they may use as well as the Ojibwa terms. See Activity 2: Ojibwa Seasonal Calendar (pages 27-34) from Learning from the Land: Wisconsin Land Use Teacher’s Guide and Student Materials.

 

9. Read aloud or encourage students to read aloud Celebrating Summer and The Fall Gathering, simple picture books illustrating preparing for a powwow in the summer and sharing harvested foods in the fall. Celebrating Summer provides some background knowledge on powwows and items of clothing worn for dancing in powwows, The Fall Gathering portrays the significance of native people sharing food, giving thanks, and respecting elders. Different foods which native people harvested are also included. Encourage students to describe what they learned about Wisconsin Native American lifestyles from the texts.

 

10. Read aloud the Ojibwa legend Shingebiss: An Ojibwe Legend, which explains how Shingebiss, a merganser duck learned to fish in winter to stay alive. Ask students to listen for descriptions of Ojibwa life and their physical environment before discovering Europeans. Especially encourage students to listen for how Shingebiss taught the Ojibwa how to fish in winter when the surface of Lake Superior froze. Students should notice how Ojibwa lived in wigwams close to Lake Superior and fished for food. After discussing the legend, read the introduction which explains the purpose of legends for Ojibwa people.

 

11. Read aloud or encourage students to read The Birth of Nanabosho, Manabozho and the Bullrushes and Grandfather Drum. The Birth of Nanabosho explains that Nanabosho is a great teacher who helps the Objiwa people and his stories explain how things came to be or provide humorous stories of tricks. This first book clarifies why the Ojibwa greet each other with “Bosho” and why they treat all beings and objects with respect. The last two books contain legends about Nanaboozhoo, an Ojibwa hero and trickster. In Grandfather Drum the author explains that stories are only to be told in the winter when Mother Earth prepares for a long sleep and the animals are hibernating. The text contains the story of “Nanaboozhoo miinwaa Ko Ko Ko” or “Nanaboozhoo and the Owl” which tells how Nanaboozhoo saved his people from the owl’s bad magic and caused the owl to be able to turn its head around without turning its body. In Manabozho and the Bullrushes the author shows a foolish side of the hero who dances all night with bullrushes rather than the people he was trying to impress with his fine dancing. Encourage students to describe important characteristics of this hero and what lessons Ojibwa people were trying to teach their children through these stories.

 

12. Encourage students to work together to create a classroom display depicting the seasonal lifestyle of each tribe. Use pictures, drawings, objects, and words to illustrate the main activities for each season.

 

13. Lead students in discussing ways the six Native American nations adapted to their physical environment in their everyday life. How did they use all parts of animals, plants, and stones in their physical environment? How might the native people have developed the knowledge and skills to live in their physical environment? What values and beliefs might the native people have in order to develop such a lifestyle? Discuss the value and drawbacks of such adaptation. Consult the September, 1974 Prehistoric Indian issue of Badger History and The Seven Fires: An Ojibway Prophecy for background information. The Seven Fires emphasizes the importance of Ojibway people living in harmony with plants, animals, and minerals due to the sacred teachings of the Creator. Amikoonse (Little Beaver) portrays the importance of people respecting the rights of animals to live with other animals like themselves rather than keeping them as pets. The chapter “Deer” in Our Stories Remember: American Indian History, Culture, and Values through Storytelling illustrates the importance of deer among eastern woodland Native people’s lives. Deer provided food and clothing necessary for survival. However, Native stories emphasize the importance of not taking more than one needed, not wasting the meat, and respecting the deer bones.

 

14. In small groups, have students read The Sacred Harvest: Ojibway Wild Rice Gathering; Ininatig's Gift of Sugar: Traditional Native Sugarmaking; Nanabosho, Soaring Eagle and the Great Sturgeon; Four Seasons of Corn: A Winnebago Tradition; Nanabosho Dances; Shannon: An Ojibway Dancer; and Powwow Summer: A Family Celebrates the Circle of Life. The first four texts portray contemporary Ojibwa and Ho-Chunk engaging in traditional methods of gathering wild rice, gathering maple sap for maple sugar, ice fishing, and in growing corn. The Sacred Harvest, Ininatig's Gift of Sugar, and Four Seasons of Corn portray the importance of being thankful for food grown or gathered while Nanabosho, Soaring Eagle and the Great Sturgeon reflects the importance of taking only the amount of food needed and nothing more. Additional valuable resources on the Ojibwa tradition of gathering wild rice is “Wild Rice–Mahnoomin” by Paula Giese, an on-line article and the video Mahnomin: Wild Rice (14 minutes). The video emphasizes the significance of wild rice to the Ojibwa people and culture and portrays the process of harvesting and processing it. Students may also investigate how wild ricing is currently done by Ojibwa as documented on the CD-Rom Cultural Horizons of Wisconsin. They should visit “Where Food Grows on Water” in the Lake Superior lowland region on the Wisconsin map. Nanabosho Dances illustrates the belief among native people of the importance of giving Mother Earth a gift of tobacco before picking a plant or killing an animal. This gift shows thankfulness for plants and animals giving up their lives so people might live. Shannon: An Ojibway Dancer portrays a contemporary Ojibway preparing her clothing and dancing in a powwow while Powwow Summer depicts an Anishinabe (or Ojibwa) family participating in powwow activities. Both these books and Nanabosho Dances deal with the history and traditions of powwow dancing which come from seasonal ceremonies to celebrate maple sugaring in the spring, intertribal games in the summer, and wild ricing in the fall. Read aloud pp. 24-26 of Visions and Voices: Winnebago Elders Speak to the Children about the history of dancing among the Ho-Chunk.

Small literature study group strategies can be used with each group to discuss the text. At first, share the meanings each student is constructing and what they enjoy about the text. Then develop more critical interpretations of what the text is about and provide evidence for the different views. Next, review the text and mark with sticky notes parts readers want to discuss which were puzzling, significant, or enjoyable. Encourage students to share different interpretations of the meanings of the text, layers of story meaning, structure, plot, characters, place, point of view, time, mood, symbols, and metaphors (see Grand Conversations: Literature Groups in Action for explanations of these elements). The teacher may label these elements as students initiate their discussion during the study group. Students may keep a reading response journal to record their interpretations and reactions to the reading which is submitted and commented on by the teacher.

Students should analyze the texts for what they contribute to our understanding of traditional methods of gathering and growing food, hunting, fishing, and the purposes of dancing.

Students should analyze the texts for perspective or point of view. Who seems to be talking? Who is the narrator? Whose views are portrayed?

Each group of students should develop a strategy for sharing the important ideas of their text with the rest of the class. They might create a series of pictures, a dramatic reenactment, or an oral summary to teach the class about their book.

 

15. Tell the story “Manabozho and the Maple Trees” from Keepers of the Earth: Native American Stories and Environmental Activities for Children which explains why maple sap is thin and watery and must be boiled for a long time to make maple syrup. Since Wisconsin Native people usually sat in a circle to hear stories during the winter, ask the students to sit in a circle and listen quietly. Following the conclusion of the story ask students: How might the Anishinabe (Ojibwa) people have felt when they had to work hard to make maple syrup? Why did Manabozho make it more difficult for the Anishinabe people to have maple syrup? Why do you think Manabozho was concerned when he noticed no Anishinabe people were fishing, farming, or gathering berries? How might the Anishinabe have benefitted from needing to work to make the maple syrup they used for food?

 

16. Read the poem “Maple Sugar Moon” which describes the origins of maple sugaring for the Anishinabe or Ojibway people and the poem “Moon of Wild Rice” which explains the Creator’s gift of wild rice to the Menominee. Both poems are located in Thirteen Moons on Turtle’s Back. Ask students to discuss why the Creator wanted the Ojibway to work for their maple sugar and why the Creator gave wild rice for the Bear people to share with the Thunder people.

 

17. Invite struggling readers to read Real Wild Rice and Shemay: The Bird in the Sugarbush which uses very simple language to explain aspects of gathering wild rice and maple sap to make maple sugar. Encourage students to summarize the story from each text and what they learned about Ojibwa people’s work to gather wild rice and maple sap. Ask students to analyze the “Indian Sugar Camp” picture from the “‘Indian Sugar Camp’” Picture Analysis Lesson Plan located in the Wisconsin Indians: A Curriculum for 2nd - 6th Grades. The students should notice the objects, people, and activities illustrated in the picture and decide if people are working together or alone and overall what they believe is happening in the picture.

 

18. Read aloud or tell the stories “Mother’s Sugar Spoon,” “Grandmother’s Gift,” and “Hungry-Time” from Grandmother’s Gift: Stories from the Anishinabeg. “Mother’s Sugar Spoon” deals with the practice of making maple sugar from maple sap; “Grandmother’s Gift” focuses on the origins and importance of corn to the Ojibwa people; and “Hungry-Time” explains the significance of wild rice as a gift from the Great Spirit. The text When Beaver Was Very Great: Stories to Live By also includes stories for reading aloud or telling. “Sugar Bush” focuses on the hard work and closeness created among the people who gathered maple sap. “Corn Dance” provides a different view of corn plants for an Ojibwa woman while “The Gift of Mahnomen,” “Shee-sheeb Brings a Message,” and “Flagging the Lake” deal with two different versions of the origins of wild rice and the importance of protecting the rice during the harvest. Ask students to elaborate on the significance of these foods for the Ojibwa people.

 

19. Bring examples of multicolored corn, unprocessed wild rice in birchbark winnowing tray, and processed rice ready to cook for students to observe. Cook wild rice and serve to students seasoned only with maple sugar, a traditional way of eating wild rice by the Menominee and Ojibwa. For a more complete explanation of the preparation of wild rice see the adult resource Wild Rice and the Ojibway People. A class project might include the preparation of corn or wild rice soup. See Tribal Cooking: Traditional Stories and Favorite Recipes for suggested recipes by contemporary Wisconsin Native people.

 

20. Lead a discussion on the native nations' process of gathering wild rice, making maple sugar, fishing, and hunting before contact with Europeans. Encourage students to illustrate their understanding of these activities.

 

21. Lead a discussion on the importance of fishing year round in providing food for the tribes. What were the roles of women, men, and children in fishing? See chapter 4 in Introduction to Wisconsin Indians and the September, 1974 Prehistoric Indian issue of Badger History for background knowledge.

 

22. Encourage students to analyze drawings of clothing worn by Wisconsin Native Americans before they had contact with Europeans. What does the clothing seem to be made from? What tools might have been used to make the clothing? How is the clothing constructed? See the September, 1974 Prehistoric Indian issue of Badger History for information.

 

23. Encourage students to examine some of the early quillwork decorating clothing. How did Native Americans obtain porcupine quills? How did they dye and prepare them for sewing onto clothing? What patterns do you notice? What process might have been used in decorating clothing with quills? Why did native people decorate their clothing? See the September, 1974 Prehistoric Indians issue of Badger History and Porcupine Quillwork on Birchbark curriculum unit for background information.

 

24. Show students the video Winnebago Women: Songs and Stories (19 minutes long) and have them watch for the women making clothing and decorating with beadwork and ribbonwork and why beadwork and ribbonwork are so important to the women. Discuss what they learned from the video.

 

25. Read aloud or have students read individually Houses of Bark: Tipi, Wigwam and Longhouse which explains how different forms of housing are made by the Woodland Native Americans (including all of the Wisconsin tribes). The text includes excellent drawings of the inside of bark tipis and longhouses. Encourage students to discuss the challenges for native people of building their own homes as well as the strengths and drawbacks of these dwellings. The lesson plan “A Place to Call Home” from Wisconsin Indians: A Curriculum for 2nd - 6th Grades invites students to compare and contrast the wigwams, bark lodges, and longhouses that the Ojibwe, Ho-Chunk, Menominee, Potawatomi, Oneida, and Stockbridge-Munsee lived in during the 1800s.

 

26. Encourage students to read A New True Book Series for The Oneida, The Menominee, and The Chippewa for a brief portrayal of everyday life prior to and after contact with Europeans. For more advanced readers, the texts The Menominee, The Potawatomi (by Clifton) The Potawatomi (by Powell), The Ojibwas (by Lucas), and The Ojibwa (by Tanner) are possibilities.

 

27. Introduce the practice of making wampum belts among the Oneida and other Iroquois nations through the text Wampum Belts of the Iroquois. Show some examples of belts made by the Iroquois before contact with Europeans, especially those which represent the Iroquois Confederacy, war, clans, hospitality, friendship with the Ojibway. Ask students to speculate on the meanings of the symbols on the belts, then confirm and correct their interpretations with explanations from the text.

 

28. Introduce students to the text First Nations Technology which illustrates traditional dwellings, transportation, fishing equipment, and clothing among the Salish people of Canada as well as housing, transportation, fishing tools, and clothing of today. Ask students to speculate about similarities and differences in these changes for Native people in Wisconsin.

 

29. Read aloud Dreamcatcher a picture book showing the traditional lifestyle of the Ojibwa as well as a traditional method of helping babies and children cope with bad dreams. The text illustrates caring for babies while older children, mothers, and fathers fish, gather, grow, and prepare food and grandparents make toys for the children. An older sister makes a dreamcatcher to hang on the baby's cradleboard which catches bad dreams so they perish when struck by light and allows the good dreams to move through the center. Encourage students to share their reactions to the text and what they learned about the Ojibwa lifestyle.

Explore the origins of dreamcatchers by reading the legend "The Old Woman and the Trickster" in Dream Catcher: The Legend, the Lady, the Woman.

Lead the class in making dreamcatchers after learning about the meanings of them. See Dream Catcher: The Legend, the Lady, the Woman for directions in making dreamcatchers. Listen to "Dreamcatcher" on Native Realities tape which focuses on the protective nature of dreamcatchers.

 

30. Read aloud Northwoods Cradle Song: From a Menominee Lullaby which illustrates how Menominee care for their babies, the cradle bed they made for babies, the summer dwellings the Menominee might live in, the physical environment in which they lived, and the importance of animals to the Menominee people. Ask students to listen for how the mother showed her care for the baby and encouraged the baby to fall asleep in the lullaby.

 

31. Invite students to read Mama’s Little One which illustrates how a Mohican mother teaches her child traditional values, such as hunting with one’s father, helping elders, telling the truth, and helping and being kind to others. Ask students to discuss their reactions to the ways the mother taught her child and why these values and practices might have been important to the Stockbridge-Munsee Band of the Mohicans.

 

32. For background information on the Ojibwa traditions of naming babies, read excerpts from the chapter “The Beginning” from Ojibway Ceremonies by Basil Johnston. Encourage students to listen for why Ojibwa parents did not rush to name their babies, why names were so significant to a baby, and the special responsibilities of the person giving the name.

 

33. Read aloud or encourage students to read First Nations Families and Foster Baby which deal with contemporary Native families. Explain that some Native people believe all adults within the Native nation are parents to all children within the nation. When the biological parents are not able to care for their children, other Native adults may become foster parents. Ask students to listen for reasons why biological parents cannot care for their children and the valuable ways foster families provide necessary care for foster babies. Elaborate on the problems of alcoholism among Native people today, but the valuable contributions other Native American adults make in serving as foster parents. In First Nations Families, ask students to listen for the different types of families among First Nations (the Canadian term for Native American) people. Encourage students to notice similarities and differences among First Nations families to their own families. Ask why some family members are shown as silhouettes on the family trees within the text (because they are not involved in the family).

 

34. Read aloud or tell the story “The Boy Who Lived with the Bears” from the collection of Iroquois stories The Boy Who Lived with the Bears and other Iroquois Stories. Ask students why the storyteller might have included the paragraph about this story reminding parents and elders always to treat their children well and to care for their children as bears care for their young. Encourage students to discuss the importance of parents and animals caring for their young and what might happen if they failed to show this care.

 

35. Invite struggling readers to read Cheer Up Old Man and more able readers to read Little White Cabin and Eagle Feather–An Honour which deal with the importance of elders among Ojibwa people. Encourage the students to explain how the texts portray the relationship between Ojibwa elders and children. How do children honor and care for elders? How do elders care for children? Why are eagle feathers so important to Ojibwa people? How do the Ojibwa earn eagle feathers?

 

36. Read aloud or tell the story “The Homely Woman” from Grandmother’s Gift: Stories from the Anishinabeg which introduces characteristics valued in Ojibwa women as wives and the importance of children listening to their elders. Ask students to elaborate on why these characteristics might have been so important for women and to speculate on what might have happened if the son married a different woman in the story. For additional background on marriages among the Ojibwa and the characteristics they looked for in their mates, review the chapter “The Marriage Ceremony” in Ojibway Ceremonies.

 

37. Read aloud The Windigo's Return: A North Woods Story, a Windigo story usually told during the winter by Ojibwa people explaining why mosquitoes appear every summer to eat the people. The author claims to have heard this story from an elderly Ojibwa woman. Ask students to analyze the illustrations for authentic portrayals of Ojibwa people's seasonal lifestyle and to analyze which aspects of the story may be factual and which may be fictional. Encourage students to explain their reasons given what they have learned about the Ojibwa people thus far.

Another legend which explains the origins of mosquitoes is “Why We Have Mosquitoes” from Legends of the Iroquois. Show the pictographs which illustrate the legend as the class choral reads the legend. Ask students to notice the differences between the two legends.

 

38. Show students the video "Growing Together" (23 minutes long) which contrasts and compares aspects of Ojibwa culture with European American culture. For example, some Ojibwa elders teach crafts such as making dreamcatchers to their children while some European American elders teach their children to crochet. Ojibwa parents also teach their children how to harvest wild rice while some European American families pass on the tradition of how to harvest apples in the family apple orchard. Encourage students to look for similarities and differences in the family activities prior to seeing the video. Following the video ask students what they learned about Ojibwa culture and how Ojibwa children learned traditions and practices.

 

39. Encourage students to speculate on possible games and recreational activities Wisconsin tribes might engage in. Discuss in small groups, then share with the total class. What games did the Wisconsin tribes develop? What was the purpose of these games? What values did the games reinforce? When did they engage in these activities? See The Moccasin Game curriculum unit.

 

40. Lead a field trip to the State Historical Museum in Madison to participate in the docent-led programs "Lifeways of the Indians of the Woodlands” and “Birchbark Canoes and Native American Games.” “Lifeways of the Indians of the Woodlands” addresses seasonal activities such as fishing, maple sugaring, gardening, and wild ricing through hands-on activities. “Birchbark Canoes and Native American Games” provides demonstrations of canoe building and playing traditional games, such as cup and pin and snow snake. Persuade students to share summaries of and reactions to what they learned from the guided program after the field trip.

 

41. Encourage students to investigate the Ojibwa explanation for the origin of music by playing the segment “How Music Began” on side one of cassette #2 from Woodland Indian Radio Series (about 3 minutes long). Ask students to listen for how the Ojibwa believe they received music, the symbol of life this sound was like, and the instrument Ojibwa use today to represent this symbol of life. For additional suggestions in exploring the origins of music, see How Music Began Activity Guide.

 

42. Invite students to learn more about Native American music and dance, especially powwow music and dance. Show the video The Menominee Nation Powwow (44 minutes long) and encourage students to watch for the main purposes of powwows, the importance of the drum group, the meanings of different powwow dances and unique clothing for each type of dancer. Another video taken at the Bear River Powwow on the Lac du Flambeau reservation is Wisconsin Powwow (42 minutes long). This video has similar content, but also contains singers and drum makers explaining the meanings of singing and the drum to them and the significance of the ceremonial fire. The video Naamikaaged: Dancer for the People (25 minutes long) focuses on Richard LaFernier, an Ojibwa, who sets up his tent and dresses for a powwow, dances, and sings. The second year he attends the powwow, he has some new components in his outfit to show how powwow clothing changes over time. Lead students in discussing why powwows have been so important to Native Americans. An additional video which portrays different Wisconsin Native nations coming together to celebrate their culture in one powwow held in 1998 is New Dawn of Tradition: A Wisconsin Powwow (15 minutes). The video shows different dancing types with dancers explaining the meanings of their regalia, and the importance of the drum in powwows. Additional background information on Native American powwow music and dances is provided in Music of the Woodland Indians curriculum guide.

 

43. Read aloud Jingle Dancer which describes a contemporary Muscogee/Ojibway girl gathering enough jingles from an aunt, cousin, grandmother and a friend to finish a jingle dress for an upcoming powwow. The “author’s note” at the end explains how jingle dresses are made, additional components of a jingle dancer’s regalia, and the significance of new dancers. Ask students to elaborate on new information they gained about jingle dancing from the text.

 

44. Invite students to listen to audiotapes of powwow music from any of the Wisconsin tribes. Examples of such tapes include Pow Wow Songs of the Menominee and International Falls Pow Wow (Anishinabe). You might play a few songs from one tribe and compare and contrast with a few songs from another tribe. Encourage students to discuss some of these questions in small groups:

What did you learn about powwow music?

What was your reaction to the music?

What were your feelings after listening to the music?

What instruments did you hear?

What seems to be the purpose of the instruments?

What did you notice about the voices?

What different rhythms did you hear?

What patterns did you notice in the music?

What did you notice about the tempo or the slowness or quickness of the music?

What did you notice about the dynamics (loudness or softness) of the music?

What might the musicians be trying to communicate through their music?

Why might this music be so important to the tribe?

 

45. Encourage students to attend the powwow at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh. The powwow is usually free and open to the public each fall. Drum groups and dancers from the Wisconsin tribes participate. Solicit students' reactions to the powwow after attending and questions they might have about some of the powwow activities.

 

46. Introduce other types of music created by Native Americans by playing excerpts from the cassette tapes Songs of the Chippewa and Chippewa Game and Social Dance Songs. These tapes are recordings of Ojibwa singing traditional Ojibwa music in the early 1900s and the 1970s. The tapes also include accompanying sheets to explain some background of the songs. Encourage students to listen to learn and share their reactions to the music.

 

47. Introduce students to different musical instruments used by the Ojibwa through the video Ojibwe Music. The narrator, Edward Benton-Banai, explains the significance of the shaker, eagle whistle, flute, and drum. Ask students to summarize important meanings of each instrument.

 

Values And Beliefs Of Wisconsin Native Americans

1. Lead students in analyzing the creation stories of each of the Wisconsin tribes for the cultural values which are implied. Make a class and individual charts or other representation of these values.

 

2. Encourage students to listen to "Breath Maker" from Native Realities which combines traditional Ojibwa music with contemporary music. This song thanks the creator for the gift of life. Discuss these questions: What are your reactions to the music? How did it make you feel? What did it make you think about? Why do you think the composer created this music? What does this music tell you about the values and beliefs of Native Americans? Add to the class and individual charts.

 

3. Read aloud Ceremony in the Circle of Life which explains Native Americans' beliefs about honoring Mother Earth, the sacred symbol of the circle which represents the four races, the four seasons, the four directions, and the connection between people and animals and plants (the circle of life). Ask: What did we learn about beliefs of Native Americans from the book? Add these beliefs and values to the class and individual charts. Why should Native Americans understand these beliefs? Why should non Indians understand these beliefs? Emphasize by understanding native people's beliefs, we can understand Native Americans more, but we do not have to adopt these beliefs.

 

4. Read Did You Hear Wind Sing Your Name? An Oneida Song of Spring aloud to students. Ask students to listen to the text for Oneida people's beliefs about the sun, moon, plants, and animals. Encourage students to speculate about why the illustrator drew such detailed pictures of these parts of the physical environment and what the author's purpose might be in writing the text. After students have offered their ideas, read aloud the Author's Note at the beginning of the text which explains the importance of the pine tree in symbolizing the Iroquois Confederacy, the significance of the hawk in bringing good news, the significance of the three sisters (corn, beans, and squash) in sustaining life, and the importance of the trilliums and strawberries as signs of spring. Song of the Hermit Thrush: An Iroquois Legend may also be read aloud, which explains why birds and animals make noises at daybreak and why the hermit thrush sings a beautiful at sunset. Encourage students to explain Oneida and other Iroquois people’s views about animals after listening to the story.

 

5. Read aloud the Ojibwa legend Peboan and Seegwun which explains how the seasons change. Ask students to speculate why each season is so important to the Ojibwa that they might create a legend to explain their origins. After reading the legend, read the “Note” at the end of the text. Ask students how the author knew of this legend and how reliable this version of the legend might be. Encourage students to consider the difference between legends told by Ojibwa people and legends collected from Ojibwa people and then retold by those outside the Ojibwa culture.

 

6. Read aloud the text Who Speaks for Wolf: A Native American Learning Story and ask students to listen for how Native people (especially the Iroquois who appear to be focused on in the text) should live with animals, such as wolves. Discuss possible meanings for the phrases “surely Wolf could make way for us as we sometimes make way for Wolf” (p. 27) and “A People who took life only to sustain their own would become a People who took life rather than move a little” (p. 34). Solicit students’ ideas for why Native people consider Wolf their brother.

 

7. Read aloud the poems “Baby Bear Moon” and “Moon When Deer Drop Their Horns” from Thirteen Moons on Turtle’s Back which illustrate the Potawatomi’s and Winnebago’s or Ho-Chunk’s beliefs about animals. Additional poems “Song to the Firefly” and “Mouse’s Bragging Song” from The Earth Under Sky Bear’s Feet may also be read expressing the Anishinabe’s (Ojibwa) and Winnebago’s (Ho Chunk) views of night animals. Ask students to talk with a partner and discuss how the poems suggest Native people should treat animals, why animals are important, and why the Creator would want to prevent deer from hurting each other. Another resource for illustrating the respect Native people have for animals, even when they need to hunt them for food to live is “Legends, Beliefs, and Stories of the People” by Gail Lang, from an on-line serial.

 

8. Read aloud Morning on the Lake which illustrates a contemporary Ojibwa grandfather and grandson spending time together and showing respect for loons on a lake, an eagle flying above a cliff, and timber wolves in the woods. Ask students to analyze ways the grandfather teaches his grandson to respect animals when they enter each animal’s habitat.

 

9. Encourage struggling readers to read the simple text Nanabosho: How the Turtle Got Its Shell and summarize for the class how the turtle helped Nanabosho and how Nanabosho helped the turtle. Solicit suggestions for the overall meaning of the story, especially regarding how people should treat animals.

 

10. Read the book Giving Thanks: A Native American Good Morning Message aloud to students and explain the Thanksgiving message came originally from the Iroquois, including the Oneida people. Ask students to listen for why Native people are thankful for all parts of the physical environment we often take for granted, including the sun, moon, stars, wind, water, plants, and animals. After reading the text without showing the illustrations, ask students to work in small groups to draw or dramatize one main idea from the text. Additional background information on the importance of gratitude for ways nature sustained the Iroquois people can be found in chapter 3 of The Iroquois and chapters 5 and 6 in Iroquois Corn in a Culture-Based Curriculum: A Framework for Respectfully Teaching about Cultures.

 

11. Invite students to choral read the Oneida legend “The Flying Head” from Legends of the Iroquois while showing the pictographs which illustrate the legend. Ask students to focus on how dogs helped hunters in the legend and how people should treat dogs. Encourage students to speculate on the purpose of the legend.

 

12. Read the components of the “Good Path” for Ojibwa people from chapter 1 in The Good Path: Ojibwe Learning and Activity Book for Kids. Encourage your students to question why these cultural values are important and why they might be difficult to follow.

 

13. Lead students in analyzing the lifestyle of each tribe for the cultural values implied. Add to the class and individual charts. For example, each tribe depended on the physical environment for their lives--their food, shelter, and clothing which led to a reverence for land and nature.

 

14. Encourage students to analyze the lifestyle of each tribe for the place of time in their lives. How did the tribes mark time? How were their activities influenced by time?

 

15. Encourage students to review what they learned about the tribes to understand more about how elderly people were treated in each tribe. What were their roles? What values are illustrated by these actions regarding the elderly? See chapter 3 in The Mishomis Book: The Voice of the Ojibway, A Mishomis Book: A History-Coloring Book of the Ojibway Indians. Book 3: Original Man and His Grandmother No-ko-mis and "Fundamental 5: Traditional Family and Clan Relationships" in Classroom Activities on Wisconsin Indian Treaties and Tribal Sovereignty for background information.

 

16. Encourage students to think about how children were regarded in each tribe. What special ceremonies were held for young children? How were children treated by the adults? What roles did children have? What values are shown by these actions regarding children? See the end of chapter 2 in The Mishomis Book: The Voice of the Ojibway and for an explanation of the naming ceremony for young children.

 

17. For an explanation of the significance of clans to the Anishinabe, show the video Clans of the Anishinabe (15 minutes). Ask students to watch the video for some of the Anishinabe’s important beliefs about the earth, sky, and animals, why clans were named after animals, purpose of the clans, and some of the duties of different clans. Have students work in small groups to illustrate important ideas from the video in words and drawings.

 

18. For an explanation of how bear clan people among the Iroquois were given the power to heal, read aloud the legend “How the Bear Clan Became Healers” from Skywoman: Legends of the Iroquois. Ask students to speculate why the Iroquois people were not following the cultural values of kindness, generosity, and respect for elders at the beginning of the legend and why the main character Little Light did demonstrate those cultural values. Encourage students to discuss how the gift of healing is related to kindness, generosity, and respect for elders.

 

19. For more advanced students, they may read some of the stories or teachings of the Ojibwa contained within The Mishomis Book: The Voice of the Ojibway which illustrate main values and beliefs of the Ojibwa, including the connection between people and animals, the gifts of different animals, and the importance of people learning from the environment. A few of these stories/teachings have been published as individual history-coloring books, including: Book No. 1: The Ojibway Creation Story, Book No. 2: Original Man Walks the Earth, Book No. 3: Original Man & His Grandmother No-ko-mis, Book 4: The Earth's First People, and Book No. 5: The Great Flood. The author, Eddie Benton-Banai describes important values and beliefs of the Ojibwa in the video Ojibwe History. Another resource which describes some of the beliefs and values of the Ojibwa is A Long Time Ago Is Just Like Today which emphasizes the importance of respect for elders and for nature.

 

20. Introduce students to Wisconsin Native people’s values and beliefs through legends, discuss the meanings of the legends, and pose mathematical problems for students to solve based on the legends. See Using Native American Legends to Teach Mathematics for examples of legends and related math problems.

 

 

First Relationships With Europeans And How These Affected Traditional Lifestyles

1. Encourage students to discuss how the Wisconsin tribes responded when they discovered the first European in Wisconsin (Jean Nicolet). How did the native people treat this strange man? See the November, 1974 issue of Badger History dealing with The Fur Trade and pp. 35-37 in Visions and Voices for ideas. One interpretation of this encounter is depicted in the play “Jean Nicolet and the Exploration of Wisconsin” from the resource Wisconsin History on Stage: Scripts for Grades 4 Through 8. Ask students to read aloud the parts and discuss their views of the accuracy of this interpretation. Have students listen to the song “Jean Nicolet, What Were You Thinking?” from The River Rocks! compact disk and respond to the questions in the song. Why did Nicolet came to Wisconsin in 1634? How might he feel about the results of his contact with Native people?

 

2. Persuade students to prepare a creative drama scene showing how members of the Menominee, Ho-Chunk, Ojibway, and Potawatomi nations might have talked with one another about the actions, appearances, and material items of the strange Europeans they first discovered (fur traders as well as explorers).

 

3. Invite students to study copies of photographs of items fur traders offered the Wisconsin tribes for trade in exchange for animal skins (examples of photographs included in Where Two Worlds Meet: The Great Lakes Fur Trade and additional sketches of trade goods in A Great Lakes Fur Trade Coloring Book). Present students with the problem of deciding if the Native Americans should trade with the French fur traders. Students should discuss in small groups: What are these items? Why might Wisconsin Native Americans want these items? How might the use of these items help Native Americans? How might these trade goods hurt Native Americans? Should the Wisconsin tribes engage in more hunting to get the furs the French want? If they hunt more, how might their lives change? Will these changes be beneficial or harmful? Finally, should the tribes trade with the French? To develop additional background knowledge on Native people’s willingness to trap beaver to participate in the fur trade, see the chapter “Native American Perceptions of the Environment” by George Cornell published in Buried Roots & Indestructible Seeds: The Survival of American Indian Life in Story, History, and Spirit.

 

4. Lead students in exploring the fur trade in more depth by discussing: What was the fur trade? Why did French traders want animal furs? Why were Wisconsin tribes willing to trade animals skins for European products? Encourage students to look at drawings of the fur trade from A Great Lakes Fur Trade Coloring Book (copied without captions) and inquire into the events of the fur trade. Assign students to write their responses to the questions based on what they learned from the photographs. Read the November, 1974 issue of Badger History dealing with The Fur Trade; pp. 9-13 in the June, 1982 issue of Cobblestone magazine dealing with The North American Beaver Trade; the article: “Trading: A Way of Life” from the November, 1998 issue of Cobblestone magazine dealing with The Ojibwe Indians of the Great Lakes; pp. 34-37 of Visions and Voices, pp. 20-23 in Learning from the Land: Wisconsin Land Use, pages 3-8 in the Roots periodical dealing with “Fur Trade,” and pp. 91-94 in The Good Path: Ojibwe Learning and Activity Book for Kids and add to your responses. Teachers might also consult chapter 2 “First Contact” and chapter 3 “Across the Divide” from The Grand Portage Story for descriptions of trading traditions among Native people, why some were willing to trade with Europeans, and trading ceremonies between European traders and Native people. An additional teacher resource is chapter 2 “French, Furs, Indians and War” in Wisconsin: The Story of the Badger State, which provides background on Native American and French relationships and Native nations’ involvement in the fur trade.

 

5. Invite students to engage in inquiry with artifacts from the fur trade era, including: brass pots, seed beads, calico and wool cloth, and trade silver. Ask students to observe carefully these artifacts and work in small groups to discuss these questions: What are the objects? What is their purpose? How are they used? How might Native people obtain these objects? What do these objects tell us about the cultural values and lifestyle of the Native people who used them? Artifacts from the fur trade are available from the Oshkosh Public Museum educational kits.

 

6. Take a field trip to the Grignon Mansion in Kaukauna, Wisconsin to engage in inquiry with such artifacts as clay pipes, trade silver, ricing sticks, and winnowing trays. Encourage students to speculate about how the objects might have been used, who used them, and the people’s lives who used them. Following the sharing of each group’s interpretations of the artifacts, tour the mansion to look for additional clues about the fur trade’s impact on European and Native American cultures. Ask students to summarize benefits and problems of the fur trade for each culture.

 

7. On a map of Wisconsin showing rivers and lakes, ask students to speculate the routes fur traders might take to bring trade goods to Native people in exchange for valuable beaver pelts and other furs. Then show the map “Fur Trade and Exploration” included in Chapter 3: Migration and Settlement from Mapping Wisconsin History: Teacher’s Guide and Student Materials. For additional background on how fur traders used the water for transporting trade goods and furs, have students read pages 15-20 in Working with Water: Wisconsin Waterways.

 

8. Read aloud or tell the story “Amik (Beaver)” from Grandmother’s Gift: Stories from the Anishinabeg which addresses the importance of beavers to Ojibwa people. Another story which affirms characteristics of beavers is “When Beaver Was Very Great” in the text When Beaver Was Very Great: Stories to Live By. Encourage students to speculate on the benefits and problems of trapping beaver for Ojibwa people’s participation in the fur trade considering the portrayals of beavers in these stories.

 

9. Encourage students to prepare a creative drama scene illustrating possible trading negotiations between the Ojibway and French fur traders. Remind students to include women because Ojibway women also had trading relations with fur traders. See "Fur-Trade Women and the Middle Ground" in The Tried and the True: Native American Women Confronting Colonization. For a more comprehensive discussion of women’s participation in the fur trade, see Many Tender Ties: Women in Fur-Trade Society, 1670-1870. Although the focus is on the Canadian fur trade, similar trends would hold for fur trade in Wisconsin and around the Great Lakes.

 

10. Lead a discussion with students on how the lives of the six tribes might have changed as they traded with the fur traders? Encourage students to make a chart or visual representation to show "Before Contact with Europeans" and "After Contact with Europeans." Then read excerpts from chapters 3-8 of Native People of Wisconsin, "Furs and Forts" in Digging and Discovery: Wisconsin Archaeology, and "Changes in Indian Life after 1634" in the March, 1976 issue of Badger History dealing with Wisconsin Indians Since 1634 and add to the chart. The Indian-White Relations Historical Foundations curriculum guide, chapter 2 in The Potawatomi, chapters 4, 5, and 6 in The Iroquois, chapters 3 and 4 from Native Communities in Wisconsin 1600-1960: A Study of Tradition and Change, chapter 5 “Roots of Community” from The Grand Portage Story, the picture book The Menominee by Fowler, Native Nations of the Western Great Lakes by Smithyman and Kalman, Life in an Anishinabe Camp by Walker, and Life in a Longhouse by Kalman also provide background information.

 

11. Read aloud the fictional chapter book The Birchbark House which portrays the traditional lifestyle of the Ojibway, but illustrates some changes due to the effects of the fur trade on Ojibway people. For example, the main character’s father is the son of an Ojibway woman and a fur trader father and he spends a great deal of time away from his family trapping and trading furs. The text also portrays the devastation caused by the fur traders when they brought smallpox to the Ojibway people. Invite students to summarize aspects of daily life during each season and how the fur trade changed the people’s lifestyle.

 

12. Show the video Fur Trade on the Great Lakes (15 minutes) which provides a European American perspective on the fur trade in the 18th and 19th centuries. The video describes the furs in demand, the European American goods traded for furs, the activities of boatmen who worked for the traders, the activities at fur trading posts, and the effects of the fur trade on animal species in North America. Invite students to give their views on the video's description of the traders and boatmen as the first Americans and reasons for their views. Ask the students to summarize the benefits and challenges of the fur trade for traders and boatmen and the benefits and drawbacks for Native people as portrayed in the video.

 

13. Following the exploration of different resources portraying the effects of the fur trade on traders and Native people, discuss with students: What were the benefits and drawbacks of trading with the French fur traders for the Native Americans? What were the benefits and drawbacks of trading for the French fur traders?

 

14. Encourage students to observe pictures of Native American clothing after contact with Europeans. How did the clothing change? What new materials did native people have to use in their clothing? How did they use these materials in traditional styles and patterns? How did decorating clothing change? What were the benefits and drawbacks of these changes? See Winnebago Applique and Beadwork Design of American Indians curriculum units and Feminine Fur Trade Fashions for additional information.

 

15. Lead a discussion with students on the overall advantages and disadvantages for the six Wisconsin tribes which resulted from their first encounters with Europeans. Encourage students to explain their understanding in writing.

 

16. Read excerpts from Woman of the Green Glade which describes the marriage of a young Ojibway woman, Ozhaguscodaywayquay, to an Irish independent fur trader John Johnston. Ask students to respond to several key events from the book: the tradition of the father giving his daughter in marriage without her permission; the reasons why the father Chief Waubojeeg agreed to allow Johnston to marry his daughter and Johnston’s reasons for requesting the marriage; and the father’s response when Ozhaguscodaywayquay ran away from her husband. Encourage students to list both benefits and difficulties of marriages between fur traders and Native American women.

 

17. Read aloud or invite capable readers to read Trouble at Fort La Pointe, an historical fiction text portraying a summer rendezvous between Ojibwa families, French fur traders, and voyageurs at Fort La Pointe on Madeline Island in Lake Superior. The main character Suzette is the daughter of a French voyageur and an Ojibwa woman. Encourage students to review the author’s note for an explanation of the fictional components of the text and listen for examples of historically accurate descriptions. During the reading, ask students to look for examples of traditional Ojibwa cultural traditions, changes among the Ojibwa due to the fur trade, and the challenges for Suzette and other metis who are part French and part Ojibwa.

 

18. Invite students to read "The Decorah Family" in the Wisconsin Indians Since 1634 issue of Badger History magazine which deals with how members of this Ho-Chunk family changed through contact with Europeans from the 1700s through World War I. Other versions of the life of Ho-poe-kaw or Glory of the Morning (the matriarch of the Decorah family) who was the peace chieftess of the Ho-Chunk at one time are described in Folklore of the Winnebago Tribe and Wisconsin Women: A Gifted Heritage.

 

19. Urge students to learn more about the practice of traditional tribal medicine. Invite students to read about Betsy Thunder, a descendant of the Decorahs, who treated both Winnebago and European Americans using traditional medicine. Betsy Thunder refused to assimilate into European American culture. See the section "Betsy Thunder," pages 25-26 in Uncommon Lives of Common Women.

 

20. Introduce the text Traders in Time to encourage students to read independently. The text is historical fiction dealing with the fur trade era around Lake Michigan in the early 1800s. The main characters are two boys who return in time to travel with a metis woman fur trader and a former French African slave turned fur trader. Encourage students who complete the text to share their meanings and reactions to the text with the class. Especially urge students to distinguish between historical facts and fiction in the text and summarize what they learned about the fur trade from the text.

 

21. Introduce the text The Illustrated Voyageur which advanced readers might choose to read independently. The text and beautiful illustrations portray aspects of the life of fur traders who traveled by canoe taking furs they had obtained through trade from Native Americans to exchange for trade goods at the rendezvous point, Grand Portage on the shores of Lake Superior, in the late 1700s. Encourage students who read the text and studied the illustrations to share what they learned about fur traders' lives and their relationships with Native Americans through the text. For additional background on voyageurs, see pages 14-20 in the Roots periodical dealing with the “Fur Trade.”

 

22. With students summarize the main causes and outcomes of the French and Indian War, Revolutionary War, and War of 1812, the involvement of the six tribes in these wars, and the effects of the wars on the tribes. See the curriculum guides on the six Wisconsin tribes and chapter 6 in The Iroquois for background knowledge.

 

23. Review the Ojibwa’s seasonal lifestyle described on pages 54-58 in A Long Time Ago Is Just Like Today after contact with Europeans. Compare and contrast to the seasonal lifestyle before contact with Europeans.

 

24. Lead a field trip to the Madeline Island Historical Museum to investigate the exhibits on traditional Ojibway life, early fur trade and voyageurs, and hunting and trapping from the early 19th century. Encourage students to complete the search for objects Native Americans and fur traders used which are displayed in the museum. For additional background information on Madeline Island, see Madeline Island & the Chequamegon Region. If it is difficult to arrange such a field trip, you may take the “Madeline Island School Virtual Tour” of different places on Madeline Island. See http://www.hereathome.org/island/virtualtour/index.html.

 

25. Lead a field trip to the State Historical Society Museum in Madison to participate in the docent-led, hands-on program “Trade and Treaties” which deals with the exchange of trade goods from the 18th and 19th centuries among European traders and Native people. Ask students to compare the trade goods which French, British, and Americans used to trade for Native Americans’ furs and the benefits and drawbacks of trading for each group.

 

Family Involvement Activities

1. At the beginning of the unit, teachers should introduce the unit to families, explaining the main goals, activities, and expectations for the students. Invite families to serve as resources by offering ideas for guest speakers, activities, or materials and as participants by assisting students in completing their final projects in the unit.

 

2. Families may be invited to take their children to the powwow held each fall at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh and talk about what they learned and enjoyed about the powwow.

 

 

Overall Assessment Strategies

1. The individual K-W-L charts, concept maps, or drawings done at the beginning of the unit could be saved and compared with K-W-L charts, concept maps, or drawings students completed by the end of the unit to show gains in knowledge during the unit. Students' work should be analyzed for understanding of the Wisconsin tribes' origins, lifestyles, values and beliefs, and first contact with Europeans.

 

2. At the beginning of the unit, as a class, brainstorm what is important to learn from the unit, different ways students might express this knowledge, and criteria for evaluating the final product. For example, the students and teacher might agree everyone should learn at least two main ideas (not small facts) about each theme (the origin of each tribe; lifestyles among the people in the six Wisconsin tribes; native people's values and beliefs; and the first contact with Europeans and effects on the native people) and could express these through writing a personal narrative, an informational piece, historical fiction, or a poem; drawing different scenes; creating a song; or developing a display to illustrate each theme. The students as well as the teacher evaluate the final product using the agreed-upon criteria.

 

3. Students should save all samples of their work from the unit and select those which illustrate significant ideas they learned for their portfolio.

 

Resources

Children's Books

Benton-Banai, E. (1975). A Mishomis book: A history-coloring book of the Ojibway Indians. Book no. 1: The Ojibway creation story. Hayward, WI: Indian Country Communications.

Benton-Banai, E. (1976). A Mishomis book: A history-coloring book of the Ojibway Indians. Book no. 2: Original man walks the earth. Hayward, WI: Indian Country Communications.

Benton-Banai, E. (1976). A Mishomis book: A history-coloring book of the Ojibway Indians. Book no. 3: Original man & his grandmother No-ko-mis. Hayward, WI: Indian Country Communications.

Benton-Banai, E. (1979). A Mishomis book: A history-coloring book of the Ojibway Indians. Book no. 4: The earth's first people. Hayward, WI: Indian Country Communications.

Benton-Banai, E. (1979). A Mishomis book: A history-coloring book of the Ojibway Indians. Book no. 5: The great flood. Hayward, WI: Indian Country Communications.

Benton-Banai, E. (1988). The Mishomis book: The voice of the Ojibway. St. Paul, MN: Red School House.

Bierhorst, J. (1993). The woman who fell from the sky: The Iroquois story of creation. NewYork: William Morrow.

Bruchac, J. (1995). The boy who lived with the bears and other Iroquois stories. New York: HarperCollins.

Bruchac, J. (1995). The earth under Sky Bear’s feet: Native American poems of the land. New York: Putnam & Grosset.

Bruchac, J. (1996). Children of the longhouse. New York: Puffin Books.

Bruchac, J. & London, J. (1992). Thirteen moons on turtle’s back: A Native American year of moons. New York: Philomel.

Brynjolson, R. (1996). Foster baby. Winnipeg: Pemmican.

Burns, D. L. (1994). Cranberries: Fruit of the bogs. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda.

Clark, K. (1996). First nations families. Victoria, B. C.: First Nations School District.

Clark, K. (1996). First nations technology. Victoria, B. C.: The Greater Victoria School District.

Clifton, J. A. (1987). The Potawatomi. New York: Chelsea House.

De Coteau Orie, S. (1995). Did you hear wind sing your name? An Oneida song of spring. New York: Walker.

Dominic, G. (1996). Song of the hermit thrush: An Iroquois legend. Mahwah, NJ: Troll.

Dunn, A. M. (1995). When beaver was very great: Stories to live by. Mount Horeb, WI: Midwest Traditions.

Dunn, A. M. (1997). Grandmother’s gift: Stories from the Anishinabeg. Duluth, MN: Holy Cow!

Duvall, J. (1991). The Oneida. Chicago: Childrens Press.

Erdrich, L. (1999). The birchbark house. New York: Hyperion Books for Children.

Ernst, K. (2000). Trouble at Fort La Pointe. Middleton, WI: Pleasant Company Publications.

Fradin, D. B. (1992). From sea to shining sea: Wisconsin. Chicago: Childrens Press.

Fowler, V. (2001). The Menominee. Austin, TX: Raintree Steck-Vaughn.

Gaikesheyongai, S. (1994). The seven fires: An Ojibway prophecy. Toronto: Sister Vision Press.

Graymont, B. (1988). The Iroquois. New York: Chelsea House.

Hartman, K. (1994). Dreamcatcher: The legend, the lady, the woman. Campbellsport, WI: Weeping Heart.

Heath, K. (1998). Mama’s little one. Gresham, WI: Muh-he-con-neew Press.

Holliday, D. Y. (2007). Mountain Wolf Woman: A Ho-Chunk girlhood. Madison, WI: Historical Society of Wisconsin.

Holliday, D. Y. & Mallone, B. (1997). Digging and discovery: Wisconsin and archaeology. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin.

Hunter, S. M. (1997). Four seasons of corn: A Winnebago tradition. Minneapolis: Lerner.

Kalbacken, J. (1994). The Menominee. Chicago: Childrens Press.

Kalman, B. (2001). Life in a longhouse village. New York: Crabtree Publishing.

King, S. (1993). Shannon: An Ojibway dancer. Minneapolis: Lerner.

Kohn, R. (1995). Celebrating summer. Chicago: Childrens Press.

Kohn, R. (1995). The fall gathering. Chicago: Childrens Press.

Larry, C. (1993). Peboan and Seegwun. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.

Loew, P. (2003). Native people of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Historical Society.

Lucas, E. (1994). The Ojibwas: People of the northern forests. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook.

Malone, B. & Gray, J. J. (2001). Working with water: Wisconsin waterways. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin.

Martinson, D. (1975). Cheer up old man. Duluth, MN: Duluth Indian Education Advisory Committee.

Martinson, D. (1975). Real wild rice. Duluth, MN: Duluth Indian Education Advisory Committee.

Martinson, D. (1975). Shemay: The bird in the sugarbush. Duluth, MN: Duluth Indian Education Advisory Committee.

Martinson, D. (1976). Manabozho and the bullrushes. Duluth, MN: Duluth Indian Education Advisory Committee.

McLellan, J. (1989). The birth of Nanabosho. Winnipeg, Canada: Pemmican.

McLellan, J. (1991). Nanabosho dances. Winnipeg, Canada: Pemmican.

McLellan, J. (1993). Nanabosho, Soaring Eagle and the Great Sturgeon. Winnipeg, Canada: Pemmican.

McLellan, J. (1994). How the turtle got its shell. Winnipeg, Canada: Pemmican.

McLester, L. G. & Torres, E. (2001). The Oneida. Austin, TX: Raintree Steck-Vaughn.

McCarthy, C. (2001). The Ojibwa. Austin, TX: Raintree Steck-Vaughn.

Osinski, A. (1992). The Chippewa. Chicago: Childrens Press.

Osofsky, A. (1992). Dreamcatcher. New York: Orchard.

Ourada, P. K. (1990). The Menominee. New York: Chelsea House.

Panagopoulos, J.L. (1993). Traders in time: A dream-quest adventure. Spring Lake, MI: River Road.

Peacock, T. & Wisuri, M. (2002). The good path: Ojibwe learning and activity book for kids. Afton, MN: Afton Historical Society Press.

Plain, F. (1989). Eagle feather–an honour. Winnipeg: Pemmican.

Plain, F. (1992). Little white cabin. Winnipeg: Pemmican.

Plain, F. (1993). Amikoonse (little beaver). Winnipeg: Pemmican.

Plain, F. (1994). Grandfather drum. Winnipeg: Pemmican.

Powell, S. (1997). The Potawatomi. New York: Franklin Watts.

Regguinti, G. (1992). The sacred harvest: Ojibway wild rice gathering. Minneapolis: Lerner.

Rendon, M. R. (1996). Powwow summer: A family celebrates the circle of life. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books.

Ridington, J. & Ridington, R. (1992). People of the longhouse: How the Iroquoian tribes lived. Buffalo, NY: Firefly.

Shemie, B. (1990). Houses of bark: Tipi, wigwam, and longhouse. Montreal: Tundra Books.

Shenandoah, J. & George, D. M. (1998). Skywoman: Legends of the Iroquois. Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light.

Sivertson, H. (1994). The illustrated voyageur. Mount Horeb, WI: Midwest Traditions.

Smith, C. L. (2000). Jingle dancer. New York: Junior Morrow Books.

Smithyman, K. & Kalman, B. (2003). Native nations of the western Great Lakes. New York: Crabtree Publishing.

Sneve, V. D. H. (1995). The Iroquois: A first Americans book. New York: Holiday House.

Swamp, J. (1995). Giving thanks: A Native American good morning message. New York: Lee & Low.

Tanner, H. H. (1992). The Ojibwa. New York: Chelsea House.

Tehanetorens. (1998). Legends of the Iroquois. Summertown, TN: Book Publishing.

Tehanetorens. (1999). Wampum belts of the Iroquois. Summertown, TN: Book Publishing.

Underwood, P. (1991). Who speaks for Wolf: A Native American learning story. San Anselmo, CA: A Tribe of Two Press.

Van Laan, N. (1997). Shingebiss: An Ojibwe legend. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Waboose, J. B. (1997). Morning on the lake. Buffalo, NY: Kids Can Press.

Walker, N. (2003). Life in an Anishinabe camp. New York Crabtree Publishing.

White Deer of Autumn. (1991). Ceremony--In the circle of life. Hillsboro, OR: Beyond Words.

Wittstock, L. W. (1993). Ininatig's gift of sugar: Traditional native sugarmaking. Minneapolis: Lerner.

Wood, D. (1996). Northwoods cradle song: From a Menominee lullaby. New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers.

Wood, D. (1996). The Windigo's Return: A north woods story. New York: Simon & Schuster.

 

Children's Periodicals

Carufel, D. (1998, November). In the cycle of the four seasons. Cobblestone, 19, 14-17.

Erickson, S. (2001, Fall). Growing up Ojibwe. Masinaigan Supplement. (Available from the Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission, ask for Masinaigan supplement, P.O. Box 9, Odanah, Wisconsin 54861 or e-mail pio@glifwc.org).

Fridley, R. W. (1981, Fall). Fur trade. Roots, 10. (Published by the Minnesota Historical Society and available at the George W. Brown, Jr. Ojibwe Museum and Cultural Center, Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin 54538)

Kanetzke, H. W. (Ed.). (1974, September). Prehistoric Indians. Badger History, 28.

Kanetzke, H. W. (Ed.). (1974, November). The fur trade. Badger History, 28.

Kanetzke, H. W. (Ed.). (1976, March). Wisconsin Indians since 1634. Badger History, 29.

Kowalski, K. M. (1998, November). Trading: A way of life. Cobblestone, 19, 20-23.

Rudolph, J. (1982, June). The beaver trade. Cobblestone, 3. 9-13.

 

 

Professional Books

Bieder, R. E. (1995). Native American communities in Wisconsin 1600-1960: A study of tradition and change. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Blessing, M. (1999). Wisconsin history on stage: Scripts for grades 4 through 8. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin.

Bletzinger, A. & Short, A. (1982). Wisconsin women: A gifted heritage. Madison, WI: Wisconsin State Division AAUW.

Brown, V. (1975). Uncommon lives of common women: The missing half of Wisconsin history. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Feminists Project Fund.

Bruchac, J. (2003). Our stories remember: American Indian history, culture, and values through storytelling. Golden, CO: Fulcrum.

Caduto, M. J. & Bruchac, J. (1988). Keepers of the earth: Native American stories and environmental activities for children. Golden, CO: Fulcrum.

Cornelius, C. (1999). Iroquois corn in a culture-based curriculum: A framework for respectfully teaching about cultures. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Cornell, G. L. (1994). Native American perceptions of the environment. In M. A. Lindquist & M. Zanger (Eds.), Buried roots & indestructible seeds: The survival of American Indian life in story, history, and spirit (pp. 21-46). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Demos, J. (1995). The tried and the true: Native American women confronting colonization. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fridley, R. W. & Brookins, J. A. (1982). Where the two worlds meet: The Great Lakes fur trade. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society.

Gibbon, D. (1987). Wisconsin: A picture book to remember her by. New York: Crescent.

Gilman, C. (1992). The Grand Portage story. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society.

Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council. (1996). Tribal cooking: Traditional stories and favorite recipes. Lac du Flambeau, WI: Author.

Hankes, J. E. & Fast, G. R. (1999). Using Native American legends to teach mathematics. Oshkosh, WI: University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Foundation.

Hauptman, L. M. & McLester III, L. Gordon (Eds). (1999). The Oneida Indian journey: From New York to Wisconsin 1784–1860. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Hieb, J. A. (1994). Visions and voices: Winnebago elders speak to the children. Independence, WI: Western Dairyland Economic Opportunity Council.

Holzhueter, J. O. (1986). Madeline Island & the Chequamegon region. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin.

Johnston, B. (1982). Ojibway ceremonies. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska.

Jorgensen, K. L. (1993). History workshop: Reconstructing the past with elementary students. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Lurie, N. O. (1980). Wisconsin Indians. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin.

Martinson, D. (1977). A long time ago is just like today. Duluth, MN: Duluth Indian Education Advisory Committee.

Mason, C. I. (1988). Introduction to Wisconsin Indians: Prehistory to statehood. Salem, WI: Sheffield.

Peterson, R. & Eeds, M. (1990). Grand conversations: Literature groups in action. New York: Scholastic.

Pfaff, T. (1993). Paths of the people: The Ojibwe in the Chippewa Valley. Eau Claire, WI: Chippewa Valley Museum Press.

Smith, D. L. (1997). Folklore of the Winnebago Tribe. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Soetebier, V. M. (2000). Woman of the green glade: The story of an Ojibway woman on the Great Lakes frontier. Blacksburg, VA: McDonald & Woodward.

Van Kirk, S. (1980). Many tender ties: Women in fur-trade society, 1670-1870. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Vennum, T. Jr. (1988). Wild rice and the Ojibway people. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press.

Wagner, S. R. (2001). Sisters in spirit: Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) influence on early American feminists. Summertown, TN: Native Voices.

Wilson, K. J. & Hanson, J. A. (1976). Feminine Fur Trade Fashions–1800-1840. Crawford, NE: The Fur Press.

 

Professional Curriculum Guides

American Indian Language and Culture Education Board. (n.d.). The history of the Hochungra people: Winnebago tribe of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: Author.

Brunette, P., Whipple, N., DesJarlait, R. & Buffalohead, P. (n.d.). Ojibway family life in Minnesota: 20th century sketches. Minneapolis: Indian Education Program, Anoka-Hennepin School District #11.

Buffalohead, P. (n.d.). A guide to Ojibway family life in Minnesota: 20th century sketches. Minneapolis: Indian Education Program, Anoka-Hennepin School District #11.

Carufel, R. (1990). The moccasin game. Madison, WI: American Indian Language and Culture Education Board.

Carufel, R. (1990). Porcupine quillwork on birchbark. Madison, WI: American Indian Language and Culture Education Board.

Carufel, R. (1991). Winnebago applique. Madison, WI: American Indian Language and Culture Education Board.

Dion, S. (1991). Indian-white relations: Historical foundations. Madison, WI: American Indian Language and Culture Education Board.

Gudinas, R. (n.d.). How music began: An activity for grades 4-5 to use with Woodland Indian Radio Series Cassette #2. Gresham, WI: Full Circle (see Full Circle address under Resource People).

Malone, B. & Fajardo, A. (1998). Learning from the land: Wisconsin land use teacher’s guide and student materials. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin.

Oxley, S. (1981). The Anishinabe: An overview unit of the history and background of the Wisconsin Ojibway Indian tribe. Madison, WI: American Indian Language and Culture Education Board.

Oxley, S. (1981). The history of the Menominee Indians. Madison, WI: American Indian Language and Culture Education Board.

Oxley, S. (1981). The history of the Oneida Indians. Madison, WI: American Indian Language and Culture Education Board.

Oxley, S. (1981). Keepers of the fire: The history of the Potawatomi Indians of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: American Indian Language and Culture Education Board.

Oxley, S. (1981). The Stockbridge-Munsee tribe: The history of the Mahican and Munsee Indians. Madison, WI: American Indian Language and Culture Education Board.

Oxley, S. & St. Germaine, E. (1990). Music of the Woodland Indians. Madison, WI: American Indian Language and Culture Education Board.

Satz, R. N. (1996). Classroom activities on Wisconsin Indian treaties and tribal sovereignty. Madison, WI: Department of Public Instruction.

St. Germaine, E. (1990). Beadwork design of American Indians. Madison, WI: American Indian Language and Culture Education Board.

Stockbridge-Munsee Historical Committee. (1993). The history of the Stockbridge-Munsee Band of Mohican Indians (second edition). Bowler, WI: Muh-He-Con-Neew Press.

Wisconsin Cartographers’ Guild & Malone, B. (2000). Mapping Wisconsin history: Teacher’s guide and student materials. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin.

Woolsey, J. (2005). Wisconsin Indians: A curriculum for 2nd-6th grades. Appleton, WI: Outagamie County Historical Society.

 

Audiovisual Materials

Derks, M. (Producer/Editor). (2001). Ojibwe history [Video]. (Available from Wisconsin Public Television).

Derks, M. (Producer/Editor). (2000). Ojibwe music [Video]. (Available from Wisconsin Public Television).

Erickson, D. (Writer and Producer). (1997). Ho Chunk stories [Video]. (Available from Ootek Productions, S12229 Round River Trail, Spring Green, WI 53588)

Eyabay et al. (Drum Groups). (1995). International Falls pow wow [Cassette Recording]. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Sunshine Records.

Fox/Wolf Rivers Environmental History Project (Organizers and Distributors). (1997). The river rocks! [Compact Disk]. Green Bay, WI: Fox/Wolf Rivers Environmental History Project. Available from Fox/Wolf Rivers Environmental History Project, PO Box 1161, Green Bay, WI 54305-1161 or the website www.foxwolf.org/samples/lyrics.html

HVS Video Productions. (Producer). (1993). Growing together [Video]. (Available from HVS Video Productions, Green Bay, WI)

HVS Video Productions. (Producer). (1994). The Menominee nation powwow [Video]. (Available from Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin, P.O. Box 910, Keshena, WI 54135)

Kozlak, C. (1979). Ojibway Indians coloring book. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society.

Kozlak, D. (1981). A Great Lakes fur trade coloring book. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society.

Mangin, L. A. (Producer). (1989). Reflections of the Indians of Wisconsin [Video]. (Available from HVS Video Productions, Green Bay, WI)

Matulavich, P. (Producer/Writer/Director). (1994). Native Americans: People of the forest [Video]. (Available from Rainbow Educational Media, 170 Keyland Court, Bohemia, NY 11716)

Oberle, K. (Director). (2001). Cultural horizons of Wisconsin [CD-ROM]. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Educational Communications Board (Available from Educational Communications Board, 3319 West Beltline Highway, Madison, WI 53713-4296)

Oshkosh Public Museum. (1998). French fur trader (1740s) educational kit. Contains brass pot, seed beads, wool and calico cloth, trade silver items, and a tomahawk. (Available for one-week check-out for classroom use, reserve by calling (920) 424-4750)

Parthun, P. (Collector and Editor). (1992). Chippewa game and social dance songs [Cassette Recording]. Washington, DC: Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies, Smithsonian Institution.

Recording Laboratory, Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Division, Library of Congress. (Producer). (1950). Songs of the Chippewa [Cassette Recording]. Washington, DC: The Recording Laboratory.

Riley, J. (Producer). (1992). Her mother before her: Winnebago women's stories of their mothers & grandmothers [Video]. (Available from Her Own Words: Women's History & Literature Media, Jocelyn Riley, Producer, P.O. Box 5264 Madison, WI 53705)

Riley, J. (Producer). (1992). Winnebago women: Songs and stories [Video]. (Available from Her Own Words: Women's History & Literature Media, Jocelyn Riley, Producer, P.O. Box 5264 Madison, WI 53705)

Rozoff, R. A. (Writer/Director). (1997). Mahnomin: Wild rice [Video]. (Available from Delta Vision Entertainment, 8158 Half Mile Road, P. O. Box 460 St. Germain, WI 54558)

Rozoff, R. A. (Writer/Producer). (2000). Clans of the Anishinabe [Video]. (Available from Delta Vision Entertainment, 8158 Half Mile Road, P. O. 460 St. Germain, WI 54558)

Rozoff, R. A. (Writer/Producer). (2000). Preserving the harvest [Video]. (Available from Delta Vision Entertainment, 8158 Half Mile Road, P. O. Box 460 St. Germain, WI 54558)

Slabbert, L. (Producer/Director). (1987). Enduring ways of the Lac du Flambeau people [Video]. (Available from Wisconsin Public Television, Madison, WI).

State Historical Society of Wisconsin. (1977). Woodland Indians of Wisconsin (folder of pictures). Madison, WI: Author.

State Historical Society of Wisconsin. (1996). Advocates for change: A Wisconsin classroom poster set. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin.

Summer Cloud Singers. (Vocalists). (1993). Pow wow songs of the Menominee [Cassette Recording]. Bowler, WI: Woodland Recording.

Thunderchief. (Vocalist). (1994). Native realities [Cassette Recording]. Madison, WI: MisTree.

Upper Midwest Videos. (Producer). (1990). Fur trade on the Great Lakes [Video]. (Available from Upper Midwest Video, 1-800-848-4188)

Vennum, T. (Producer). (1996). Wisconsin powwow [Video]. (Available from the Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies, 955 L’Enfant Plaza, Suite 2600 MRC 914, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20560)

Vennum, T. (Producer). (1996). Naamikaaged: Dancer for the people [Video]. (Available from the Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies, 955 L’Enfant Plaza, Suite 2600 MRC 914, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20560)

Werner, B. (Producer/Director). (1998). New dawn of tradition: A Wisconsin powwow [Video]. (Available from Wisconsin Education Communication Board, 3319 West Beltline Highway, Madison, WI 53713)

WHA Radio and The Native American Studies Program, University of Wisconsin Madison. (Producer). Woodland Indians [Cassette Recordings]. Madison, WI: WHA Radio.

 

Resource People

Dorothy Davids and Ruth Gudinas, Full Circle Consulting Partnership, N9136 Big Lake Road, Gresham, Wisconsin 54128, (715) 787-4427. (Dorothy Davids is a Mohican elder, Stockbridge-Munsee Band, and a retired educator. Ruth Gudinas is also a retired educator and both are knowledgeable of Native American history and multicultural education. They know of good resources for teaching about Native Americans as well as biases in existing materials.)

 

Field Trips

Appleton Art Center, 130 North Morrison Street, Appleton, Wisconsin 54911, (920) 733-4089. (The Native American Experience exhibit and guided tour includes art by contemporary Native Americans; artifacts such as beadwork, basketry, and bows and arrows; and a summary of the history and culture of the six Wisconsin tribes. Schedule as soon as the announcement of the exhibit is publicized. Cost of the guided tour is $2 per student.)

Grand Portage National Monument, Grand Portage, Minnesota. (An excellent recreated voyageur encampment and Ojibwa village site with living history demonstrations of cooking for the fur trading partners and guides in the kitchen, dining facilities and fur trade goods in the Grand Hall, preparing furs for shipment and repairing canoes in the warehouse, gardening in the Ojibway village, and setting up the voyageur encampment near the dock. Videos on the Northwest Passage and the Voyageur’s life are also available at the site.)

Grignon Mansion, 1313 Augustine Street, Kaukauna, Wisconsin 54130, (920) 766-3122. (A curator or docent leads the class through a two- to three-hour lesson on the fur trade in Wisconsin, based on the Grignon family’s centuries-long role in the fur trade. The Grignon Mansion housed several generations of this French-Indian family.)

Madeline Island Historical Museum, La Pointe, Wisconsin 54850-0009, (715) 747-2415. (Museum offers guided tours, which must be scheduled in advance, includes an introductory video, provides worksheets for students to complete searches for different artifacts used by different groups of people living on the island and other information regarding the fur trade and Ojibway floral designs and symbols. Museum guides may also portray historical characters from Madeline Island. See the web site http://www.shsw.wisc.edu/sites/madisle/)

State Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53703-2707, (608) 264-6557. (Museum guided programs must be scheduled one month in advance, are available Wednesdays or Fridays from 10 a.m. through 2 p.m., each program lasts one hour, docent-led programs include a fee of $2.00 per child.)

 

Electronic Resources

Giese, P. (1995). Wild rice–mahnoomin [On-line]. Available: http://indy4.fdl.cc.mn.us/~isk/food/wildrice.html

Lang, G. (1997). Legends, beliefs and stories of the people [On-line serial]. Available: http://www.southernpride.com/1997/april/events/legends.html

 

Wisconsin History Units

Teaching Social Studies

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